Rechargeable Batteries for Transport and Grid Applications: Current Status and Challenges
Lithium-ion batteries are poised to make a significant impact on the electrification of transport and may also play a role for some power regulation/storage applications on the electric grid. In this article, we describe some of the applications where these batteries are either already being or are about to be used. The components that make up a lithium-ion battery are outlined along with the causes of capacity fade and safety issues. Current battery chemistries are then surveyed along with the factors that control possible scenarios to increase energy densities on both a volumetric and mass basis.
KeywordsNickel Graphite Sulfide Silicate Lithium
Support for the author’s research in this field has come from the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) via subcontract No. 6517749 with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and from the DOE office of Basic Energy Sciences, via support of the North Eastern Center for Chemical Energy Sciences, an Energy Frontier research Center. Discussions with Gerbrand Ceder, M. Stanley Whittingham, Jordi Cabana and Roger Thornton are gratefully acknowledged.
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