Conclusion: Place of Cognitive Screening Instruments: Test Characteristics and Suspected Diagnosis

  • Andrew J. Larner


Many cognitive screening instruments have been described in the literature over the past 40 years and find use around the world, but this superabundance may be bewildering for the clinician approaching a patient with cognitive complaints. Appropriate test selection may depend on a variety of factors related to the particular clinical situation, including, but not limited to, the time available to undertake cognitive assessment (e.g., primary or secondary care settings), requirement to test general or specific cognitive functions, and the availability of informants. Although many neurological and general medical disorders of varying etiology (neurodegenerative, vascular, inflammatory, endocrine, structural, infective, psychiatric) may cause cognitive impairment, most cognitive disorders in specialist ­settings result from a relatively small number of conditions, such as Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia/vascular cognitive impairment, Parkinson’s disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and frontotemporal lobar degeneration syndromes. Clinical suspicion of these entities based on clinical history and physical examination may determine which cognitive screening instruments are best used, as in the investigation of other neurological disorders.


Cognitive screening instruments Test characteristics Alzheimer’s disease Vascular cognitive impairment Parkinson’s disease dementia Frontotemporal lobar degenerations 



Thanks to Anne-Marie Cagliarini for a critical reading of and helpful suggestions related to this chapter.


  1. 1.
    Hodkinson HM. Evaluation of a mental test score for assessment of mental impairment in the elderly. Age Ageing. 1972;1:233–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Molloy DW, Standish TI, Lewis DL. Screening for mild cognitive impairment: comparing the SMMSE and the ABCS. Can J Psychiatry. 2005;50:52–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Standish TI, Molloy DW, Cunje A, Lewis DL. Do the ABCS 135 short cognitive screen and its subtests discriminate between normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment and dementia? Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2007;22:189–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Galvin JE, Roe CM, Powlishta KK, et al. The AD8: a brief informant interview to detect dementia. Neurology. 2005;65:559–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Galvin JE, Roe CM, Coats MA, Morris JC. Patient’s rating of cognitive ability: using the AD8, a brief informant interview, as a self-rating tool to detect dementia. Arch Neurol. 2007;64:725–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mendiondo MS, Ashford JW, Kryscio RJ, Schmitt FA. Designing a Brief Alzheimer Screen (BAS). J Alzheimers Dis. 2003;5:391–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mansbach WE, Macdougall EE, Rosenzweig AS. The Brief Cognitive Assessment Tool (BCAT): a new test emphasizing contextual memory, executive functions, attentional capacity, and the prediction of instrumental activities of daily living. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2012;34:183–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Reisberg B, Ferris SH. Brief Cognitive Rating Scale (BCRS). Psychopharmacol Bull. 1988;24:629–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Huppert FA, Brayne CA, Gill C, et al. CAMCOG – a concise neuropsychological test to assist dementia diagnosis: sociodemographic determinants in an elderly population sample. Br J Clin Psychol. 1995;34:529–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pattie AH, Gilleard CJ. A brief psychogeriatric assessment schedule. Validation against psychiatric diagnosis and discharge from hospital. Br J Psychiatry. 1975;127:489–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kiernan RJ, Mueller J, Langston JW, Van Dyke C. The Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination: a brief but quantitative approach to cognitive assessment. Ann Intern Med. 1987;107:481–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Teng EL, Hasegawa K, Homma A, et al. The Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI): a practical test for cross-cultural epidemiological studies of dementia. Int Psychogeriatr. 1994;6:45–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jacobs JW, Bernhard MR, Delgado A, Strain JJ. Screening for organic mental symptoms in the medically ill. Ann Intern Med. 1977;86:40–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Belmin J, Pariel-Madjlessi S, Surun P, et al. The cognitive disorders examination (Codex) is a reliable 3-minute test for detection of dementia in the elderly (validation study in 323 subjects). Presse Med. 2007;36:1183–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Broadbent DE, Cooper PF, FitzGerald P, Parkes KR. The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) and its correlates. Br J Clin Psychol. 1982;21:1–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jacqmin-Gadda H, Fabrigoule C, Commenges D, Letenneur L, Dartigues JF. A cognitive screening battery for dementia in the elderly. J Clin Epidemiol. 2000;53:980–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ashford JW, Gere E, Bayley PJ. Measuring memory in large group settings using a continuous recognition test. J Alzheimers Dis. 2011;27:885–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kawas C, Segal J, Stewart WF, Corrada M, Thal LJ. A validation study of the Dementia Ques-tionnaire. Arch Neurol. 1994;51:901–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Carnero-Pardo C, Saez-Zea C, Montiel-Navarro L, Feria-Vilar I, Gurpegui M. Normative and reliability study of fototest. Neurologia. 2011;26:20–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dubois B, Touchon J, Portet F, Ousset PJ, Vellas B, Michel B. “The 5 words”: a simple and sensitive test for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease [in French]. Presse Med. 2002;31:1696–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Imai Y, Hasegawa K. The revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale (HDS-R) – evaluation of its usefulness as a screening test for dementia. J Hong Kong Coll Psychiatr. 1994;4(2):20–4.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kim KW, Lee DY, Jhoo JH, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of mini-mental status examination and revised Hasegawa dementia scale for Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2005;19:324–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Brandt J. The Hopkins Verbal Learning Test: development of a new memory test with six equivalent forms. Clin Neuropsychol. 1991;5:125–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Frank RM, Byrne GJ. The clinical utility of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test as a screening test for mild dementia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2000;15:317–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hopkins R, Kilik L, Day D, Rows C, Hamilton P. The Revised Kingston Standardized Cognitive Assessment. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2004;19:320–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rami L, Molinuevo JL, Sanchez-Valle R, Bosch B, Villar A. Screening for amnestic mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer’s disease with M@T (Memory Alteration Test) in the primary care population. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2007;22:294–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Buschke H, Kuslansky G, Katz M, et al. Screening for dementia with the Memory Impairment Screen. Neurology. 1999;52:231–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Clionsky MI, Clionsky E. Development and validation of the Memory Orientation Screening Test (MOST™): a better screening test for dementia. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2010;25:650–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jones BN, Teng EL, Folstein MF, Harrison KS. A new bedside test of cognition for patients with HIV infection. Ann Intern Med. 1993;119:1001–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Salib E, McCarthy J. Mental Alternation Test (MAT): a rapid and valid screening tool for dementia in primary care. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2002;17:1157–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kahn RL, Goldfarb AI, Ollack M, Peck A. Brief objective measures for the determination of mental status in the aged. Am J Psychiatry. 1960;117:326–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Golding E. The Middlesex Elderly Assessment of Mental State. Bury St Edmunds: Thames Valley Test Company; 1989.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Borson S, Scanlan J, Brush M, Vitiliano P, Dokmak A. The Mini-Cog: a cognitive “vital signs” measure for dementia screening in multi-lingual elderly. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2000;15:1021–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Borson S, Scanlan JM, Chen P, Ganguli M. The mini-cog as a screen for dementia: validation in a population-based sample. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003;51:1451–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Qazi A, Richardson B, Simmons P, et al. The Mini-SIB: a short scale for measuring cognitive function in severe dementia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005;20:1001–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Libon DJ, Massimo L, Moore P, et al. Screening for frontotemporal dementias and Alzheimer’s disease with the Philadelphia Brief Assessment of Cognition: a preliminary analysis. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2007;24:441–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sells R, Larner AJ. The Poppelreuter figure visual perceptual function test for dementia diagnosis. Prog Neurol Psychiatry. 2011;15(2):17–8, 20-21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Warrington EK. The Queen Square screening test for cognitive deficits. London: Institute of Neurology; 1989.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Storey JE, Rowland JT, Basic D, Conforti DA, Dickson HG. The Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS): a multicultural cognitive assessment scale. Int Psychogeriatr. 2004;16:13–31 [Erratum Int. Psychogeriatr. 16:218].PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tariq SH, Tumosa N, Chibnall JT, Perry 3rd MH, Morley JE. Comparison of the Saint Louis university mental status examination and the mini-mental state examination for detecting dementia and mild neurological disorder – a pilot study. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006;14:900–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Solomon PR, Hirschoff A, Kelly B, et al. A 7-minute neurocognitive screening battery highly sensitive to Alzheimer’s disease. Arch Neurol. 1998;55:349–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Saxton J, Swihart AA. Neuropsychological assessment of the severely impaired elderly patient. Clin Geriatr Med. 1989;5:531–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Belle SH, Mendelsohn AB, Seaberg EC, Ratcliff G. A brief cognitive screening battery for dementia in the community. Neuroepidemiology. 2000;19:43–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Robert PH, Schuck S, Dubois B, et al. Screening for Alzheimer’s disease with the short cognitive evaluation battery. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2003;15:92–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Koss E, Patterson MB, Ownby R, Stuckey JC, Whitehouse PJ. Memory evaluation in Alzheimer’s disease. Caregivers’ appraisals and objective testing. Arch Neurol. 1993;50:92–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Pfeiffer E. A short portable mental status questionnaire for the assessment of organic brain deficit in elderly patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1975;23:433–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kokmen E, Smith GE, Petersen RC, Tangalos E, Ivnik RC. The Short Test of Mental Status. Correlations with standardized psychometric testing. Arch Neurol. 1991;48:725–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Zaudig M, Mittelhammer J, Hiller W, et al. SIDAM-A structured interview for the diagnosis of dementia of the Alzheimer type, multi-infarct dementia and dementias of other aetiology according to ICD-10 and DSM-III-R. Psychol Med. 1991;21:225–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Fong TG, Jones RN, Rudolph JL, et al. Development and validation of a brief cognitive assessment tool: the sweet 16. Arch Intern Med. 2011;171:432–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Takeda S, Tajime K, Nakagome K. The Takeda Three Colors Combination Test: an easy and quick screening for Alzheimer’s disease. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010;58:1199–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mahoney R, Johnston K, Katona C, Maxmin K, Livingston G. The TE4D-Cog: a new test for detecting early dementia in English speaking populations. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005;20:1172–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Froehlich TE, Robison JT, Inouye SK. Screening for dementia in the outpatient setting: the time and change test. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1998;46:1506–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Inouye SK, Robison JT, Froehlich TE, Richardson ED. The time and change test: a simple screening test for dementia. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1998;53:M281–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lindeboom J, Schmand B, Tulner L, Walstra G, Jonker C. Visual association test to detect early dementia of the Alzheimer type. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2002;73:126–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Burns A, Lawlor B, Craig S. Assessment scales in old age psychiatry. 2nd ed. London: Martin Dunitz; 2004. p. 33–103.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Tate RL. A compendium of tests, scales, and questionnaires. The practitioner’s guide to measuring outcomes after acquired brain impairment. Hove: Psychology Press; 2010. p. 91–270.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lorentz WJ, Scanlan JM, Borson S. Brief screening tests for dementia. Can J Psychiatry. 2002;47:723–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Brodaty H, Low LF, Gibson L, Burns K. What is the best dementia screening instrument for general practitioners to use? Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006;14:391–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Milne A, Culverwell A, Guss R, Tuppen J, Whelton R. Screening for dementia in primary care: a review of the use, efficacy and quality of measures. Int Psychogeriatr. 2008;20:911–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Fisher CAH, Larner AJ. Frequency and diagnostic utility of cognitive test instrument use by general practitioners prior to memory clinic referral. Fam Pract. 2007;24:495–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hussey D, Foy K, Meehean K. Quality of dementia referrals to later life psychiatry service. Psychiatr Bull. 2009;33:154–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Menon R, Larner AJ. Use of cognitive screening instruments in primary care: the impact of national dementia directives (NICE/SCIE, National Dementia Strategy). Fam Pract. 2011;28:272–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR. Mini-Mental State. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res. 1975;12:189–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Newman JC, Feldman R. Copyright and open access at the bedside. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:2447–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Jonker C, Geerlings MI, Schmand B. Are memory complaints predictive for dementia? A review of clinical and population-based studies. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2000;15:983–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Gallassi R, Oppi F, Poda R, et al. Are subjective cognitive complaints a risk factor for dementia? Neurol Sci. 2010;31:327–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Chong MS, Chin JJ, Saw SM, et al. Screening for dementia in the older Chinese with a single question test on progressive forgetfulness. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006;21:442–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    St John P, Montgomery P. Is subjective memory loss correlated with MMSE scores or dementia? J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2003;16:80–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Mitchell AJ, Benito-León J, Vega S, Bermejo-Pareja F. Determinants of impaired function and poor quality of life in people with subjective memory complaints. 2012; Submitted.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Cook C, Fay S, Rockwood K. Verbal repetition in people with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease: a descriptive analysis from the VISTA clinical trial. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2009;23:146–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Fukui T, Yamazaki R, Kinno R. Can the “Head-Turning Sign” be a clinical marker of Alzheimer’s disease? Dement Geriatr Cogn Dis Extra. 2011;1:310–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Larner AJ. Head turning sign: pragmatic utility in clinical diagnosis of cognitive impairment. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2012;83:852–3.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Larner AJ. “Attended alone” sign: validity and reliability for the exclusion of dementia. Age Ageing. 2009;38:476–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Rosen WG, Mohs RC, Davis KL. A new rating scale for Alzheimer’s disease. Am J Psychiatry. 1984;141:1356–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Doraiswamy PM, Bieber F, Kaiser L, et al. The Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale: patterns and predictors of baseline cognitive performance in multicenter Alzheimer’s disease trials. Neurology. 1997;48:1511–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Morris J, Heyman A, Mohs R, et al. The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD). Part I. Clinical and neuropsychological assessment of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology. 1989;39:1159–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Mattis S. Dementia Rating Scale. Windsor: NFER-Nelson; 1992.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hughes CP, Berg L, Danziger WL, Coben LA, Martin RL. A new clinical scale for the staging of dementia. Br J Psychiatry. 1982;140:566–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Morris J. The CDR: current version and scoring rules. Neurology. 1993;43:2412–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Reisberg B, Ferris SH, de Leon MJ, Crook T. The Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) for assessment of primary degenerative dementia. Am J Psychiatry. 1982;139:1136–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Juva K, Sulkava R, Erkinjuntti T, Ylikoski R, Valvanne J, Tilvis R. Usefulness of the Clinical Dementia Rating scale in screening for dementia. Int Psychogeriatr. 1995;7:17–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Mitchell AJ, Malladi S. Screening and case-finding tools for the detection of dementia. Part I: Evidence-based meta-analysis of multidomain tests. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2010;18:759–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Mitchell AJ, Malladi S. Screening and case-finding tools for the detection of dementia. Part II: Evidence-based meta-analysis of single-domain tests. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2010;18:783–800.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Malloy PF, Cummings JL, Coffey CE, et al. Cognitive screening instruments in neuropsychiatry: a report of the Committee on Research of the American Neuropsychiatric Association. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1997;9:189–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Knopman DS, DeKosky ST, Cummings JL, et al. Practice parameter: diagnosis of dementia (an evidence-based review). Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. 2001;56:1143–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Waldemar G, Dubois B, Emre M, et al. Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of Alzheimer’s disease and other disorders associated with dementia. Eur J Neurol. 2007;14:e1–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Cummings JL, Mega MS, Gray K, et al. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory: comprehensive assessment of psychopathology in dementia. Neurology. 1994;44:2308–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Wedderburn C, Wear H, Brown J, et al. The utility of the Cambridge Behavioural Inventory in neurodegenerative disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008;79:500–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Larner AJ. Dementia in clinical practice: a neurological perspective. Studies in the dementia clinic. London: Springer; 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Ferman TJ, Smith GE, Boeve BF, et al. DLB fluctuations: specific features that reliably differentiate DLB from AD and normal aging. Neurology. 2004;62:181–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Larner AJ. Can the informant Fluctuation Composite Score help in the diagnosis of synucleinopathies? A pragmatic study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2012; in press.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Mitchell AJ. Is it time to separate subjective cognitive complaints from the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment? Age Ageing. 2008;37:497–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Larner AJ. Screening utility of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA): in place of – or as well as – the MMSE? Int Psychogeriatr. 2012;24:391–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hancock P, Larner AJ. Test Your Memory (TYM) test: diagnostic utility in a memory clinic population. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2011;26:976–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hancock P, Larner AJ. Cambridge Behavioural Inventory for the diagnosis of dementia. Prog Neurol Psychiatry. 2008;12(7):23–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kipps CM, Knibb JA, Hodges JR. Clinical presentations of frontotemporal dementia. In: Hodges JR, editor. Frontotemporal dementia syndromes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2007. p. 38–79 [at 46–47].Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Larner AJ, Coles AJ, Scolding NJ, Barker RA. The A-Z of neurological practice. A guide to clinical neurology. 2nd ed. London: Springer; 2011.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kapur N, Pearson D. Memory symptoms and memory performance of neurological patients. Br J Psychol. 1983;74:409–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Jónsdóttir MK, Adólfsdóttir S, Cortez RD, Gunnarsdóttir M, Gústafsdóttir AH. A diary study of action slips in healthy individuals. Clin Neuropsychol. 2007;21:875–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Larner AJ. Neuropsychological neurology: the neurocognitive impairments of neurological disorders. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Rao SM. A manual for the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests in multiple sclerosis. New York: National Multiple Sclerosis Society; 1990.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Benedict RHB, Fischer JS, Archibald CJ. Minimal neuropsychological assessment of MS patients: a consensus approach. Clin Neuropsychol. 2002;16:381–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Calabrese P. Neuropsychology of multiple sclerosis: an overview. J Neurol. 2006;253(Suppl1):I/10–5.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Benedict RH, Munschauer F, Linn R, et al. Screening for multiple sclerosis cognitive impairment using a self-administered 15-item questionnaire. Mult Scler. 2003;9:95–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Mahieux F, Michelet D, Manifacier M-J, Boller F, Fermanian J, Guillard A. Mini-Mental Parkinson: first validation study of a new bedside test constructed for Parkinson’s disease. Behav Neurol. 1995;8:15–22.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Larner AJ. Mini-Mental Parkinson (MMP) as a dementia screening test: comparison with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Curr Aging Sci. 2012;5:136–9.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Rosser AE, Hodges JR. The Dementia Rating Scale in Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease and progressive supranuclear palsy. J Neurol. 1994;241:531–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Donnelly K, Grohman K. Can the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale differentiate Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, and depression in the elderly? Brain Cogn. 1999;39:60–3.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Lukatela K, Cohen RA, Kessler H, et al. Dementia Rating Scale performance: a comparison of vascular and Alzheimer’s dementia. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2000;22:445–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Bak TH, Crawford LM, Hearn VC, Mathuranath PS, Hodges JR. Subcortical dementia revisited: similarities and differences in cognitive function between progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Neurocase. 2005;11:268–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Querfurth HW, LaFerla FM. Alzheimer’s disease. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:329–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Ballard C, Gauthier S, Corbett A, Brayne C, Aarsland D, Jones E. Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet. 2011;377:1019–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Cowppli-Bony P, Fabrigoule C, Letenneur L, et al. Validity of the five-word screening test for Alzheimer’s disease in a population based study [in French]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2005;161:1205–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Brown J, Pengas G, Dawson K, Brown LA, Clatworthy P. Self administered cognitive screening test (TYM) for detection of Alzheimer’s disease: cross sectional study. BMJ. 2009;338:b2030.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Cacho J, Benito-Leon J, Garcia-Garcia R, Fernandez-Calvo B, Vincente-Villardon JL, Mitchell AJ. Does the combination of the MMSE and Clock Drawing Test (Mini-clock) improve the detection of mild Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment? J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;22:889–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Ehrensperger MM, Berres M, Taylor KI, Monsch AU. Screening properties of the German IQCODE with a two-year time frame in MCI and early Alzheimer’s disease. Int Psychogeriatr. 2010;22:91–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Takechi H, Dodge HH. Scenery Picture Memory Test: a new type of quick and effective screening test to detect early stage Alzheimer’s disease. Geriatr Gerontol. 2010;10:183–90.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Santos MT, Sougey EB, ALchieri JC. Validity and reliability of the screening test for Alzheimer’s disease with proverbs (STADP) for the elderly. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2009;67:836–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Prestia A, Rossi R, Geroldi C, et al. Validation study of the three-objects-three-places test: a screening test for Alzheimer’s disease. Exp Aging Res. 2006;32:395–410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    De Vresse LP, Pradelli S, Massini G, Buscema M, Savare R, Grossi E. The traveling [sic] salesman problem as a new screening test in early Alzheimer’s disease: an exploratory study. Visual problem-solving in AD. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2005;17:458–64.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Dubois B, Feldman HH, Jacova C, et al. Revising the definition of Alzheimer’s disease: a new lexicon. Lancet Neurol. 2010;9:1118–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Visser PJ, Verhey FR, Boada M, et al. Development of screening guidelines and clinical criteria for predementia Alzheimer’s disease. The DESCRIPA study. Neuroepidemiology. 2008;30:254–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Gauthier S, Reisberg B, Zaudig M, et al. Mild cognitive impairment. Lancet. 2006;367:1262–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Mariani E, Monastero R, Mecocci P. Mild cognitive impairment: a systematic review. J Alzheimers Dis. 2007;12:23–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Lonie JA, Tierney KM, Ebmeier KP. Screening for mild cognitive impairment: a systematic review. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2009;24:902–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Nasreddine ZS, Phillips NA, Bédirian V, Charbonneau S, Whitehead V, Collin I, Cummings JL, Chertkow HJ. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: a brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53:695–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Ahmed S, de Jager C, Wilcock G. A comparison of screening tools for the assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment: preliminary findings. Neurocase. 2011. [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Ehreke L, Luppa M, Konig HH, Riedel-Heller SG. Is the Clock Drawing Test a screening tool for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment? A systematic review. Int Psychogeriatr. 2010;22:56–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Wahlund L-O, Erkinjuntti T, Gauthier S, editors. Vascular cognitive impairment in clinical practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2009.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Langa KM, Foster NL, Larson EB. Mixed dementia: emerging concepts and therapeutic implications. JAMA. 2004;292:2901–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Graham NL, Emery T, Hodges JR. Distinctive cognitive profiles in Alzheimer’s disease and subcortical vascular dementia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75:61–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Magni E, Binetti G, Padovani A, Cappa SF, Bianchetti A, Trabucchi M. The Mini-Mental State Examination in Alzheimer’s disease and multi-infarct dementia. Int Psychogeriatr. 1996;8:127–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    de Koning I, Dippel DW, van Kooten F, Koudstall PJ. A short screening instrument for poststroke dementia: the R-CAMCOG. Stroke. 2000;31:1502–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Ferris SH. General measures of cognition. Int Psychogeriatr. 2003;15(Suppl1):215–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Szatmari S, Fekete I, Csiba L, Kollar J, Sikula J, Bereczki D. Screening of vascular cognitive impairment on a Hungarian cohort. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1999;53:39–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Hachinski VC, Iliff LD, Zilkha E, et al. Cerebral blood flow in dementia. Arch Neurol. 1975;32:632–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Moroney JT, Bagiella E, Desmond DW, et al. Meta-analysis of the Hachinski Ischemic Score in pathologically verified dementias. Neurology. 1997;49:1096–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Dong Y, Sharma VK, Chan BP, et al. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is superior to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for the detection of vascular cognitive impairment after acute stroke. J Neurol Sci. 2010;299:15–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Pendlebury ST, Cuthbertson FC, Welch SJ, Mehta Z, Rothwell PM. Underestimation of cognitive impairment by Mini-Mental State Examination versus the Montreal Cognitive Assessment in patients with transient ischemic attack and stroke: a population-based study. Stroke. 2010;41:1290–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Brookes RL, Hannesdottir K, Lawrence R, Morris RG, Markus HS. Brief Memory and Executive Test: evaluation of a new screening test for cognitive impairment due to small vessel disease. Age Ageing. 2012;41:212–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Calderon J, Perry R, Erzinclioglu S, Berrios GE, Dening T, Hodges JR. Perception, attention and working memory are disproportionately impaired in dementia with Lewy bodies compared with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2001;70:157–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Downes JJ, Priestley NM, Doran M, Ferran J, Ghadiali E, Cooper P. Intellectual, mnemonic and frontal functions in dementia with Lewy bodies: a comparison with early and advanced Parkinson’s disease. Behav Neurol. 1998;11:173–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Ala T, Hughes LF, Kyrouac GA, Ghobrial MW, Elble RJ. The Mini-Mental State exam may help in the differentiation of dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer’s disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2002;17:503–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Reyes MA, Lloret SP, Gerscovich ER, Martin ME, Leiguarda R, Merello M. Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination validation in Parkinson’s disease. Eur J Neurol. 2009;16:142–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Robben SHM, Sleegers MJM, Dautzenberg PLJ, van Bergen FS, ter Bruggen JP, Olde Rikkert MGM. Pilot study of a three-step diagnostic pathway for young and old patients with Parkinson’s disease dementia: screen, test and then diagnose. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2010;25:258–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Emre M, Aarsland D, Brown R, et al. Clinical diagnostic criteria for dementia associated with Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2007;22:1689–707.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Caviness JN, Driver-Dunckley E, Connor DJ, et al. Defining mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2007;22:1272–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Litvan I, Aarsland D, Adler CH, et al. MDS Task Force on mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease: critical review of PD-MCI. Mov Disord. 2011;26:1814–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Zadikoff C, Fox SH, Tang-Wai DF, et al. A comparison of the mini mental state exam to the Montreal cognitive assessment in identifying cognitive deficits in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2008;23:297–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Gill DJ, Freshman A, Blender JA, Ravina B. The Montreal cognitive assessment as a screening tool for cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2008;23:1043–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Nazem S, Siderowf AD, Duda JE, et al. Montreal cognitive assessment performance in patients with Parkinson’s disease with “normal” global cognition according to mini-mental state examination score. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009;57:304–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Serrano-Dueñas M, Calero B, Serrano S, Serrano M, Coronel P. Metric properties of the mini-mental Parkinson and SCOPA-COG scales for rating cognitive deterioration in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2010;25:2555–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Kalbe E, Calabrese P, Kohn N, et al. Screening for cognitive deficits in Parkinson’s disease with the Parkinson neuropsychiatric dementia assessment (PANDA) instrument. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2008;14:93–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Pagonabarraga J, Kulisevsky J, Llebaria G, et al. PDD-Short Screen: a brief cognitive test for screening for dementia in Parkinsons’s disease. Mov Disord. 2010;25:440–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Mathew R, Bak TH, Hodges JR. Screening for cognitive dysfunction in corticobasal syndrome: utility of Addenbrooke’s cognitive examination. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2011;31:254–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Dubois B, Slachevsky A, Litvan I, Pillon B. The FAB: a Frontal Assessment Battery at bedside. Neurology. 2000;55:1621–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Kertesz A, Nadkarni N, Davidson W, Thomas AW. The Frontal Behavioral Inventory in the differential diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2000;6:460–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    De Deyn PP, Engelborghs S, Saerens J, et al. The Middelheim Frontality Score: a behavioural assessment scale that discriminates frontotemporal dementia from Alzheimer’s disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005;20:70–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Gleichgerrcht E, Roca M, Manes F, Torralva T. Comparing the clinical usefulness of the Institute of Cognitive Neurology (INECO) Frontal Screening (IFS) and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) in frontotemporal dementia. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2011;33:997–1004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Royall DR, Mahurin RK, Gray KF. Bedside assessment of executive cognitive impairment: the executive interview. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1992;40:1221–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Slachevsky A, Villalpando JM, Sarazin M, Hahn BV, Pillon B, Dubois B. Frontal assessment battery and differential diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol. 2004;61:1104–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Lipton AM, Ohman KA, Womack KB, Hynan LS, Ninman ET, Lacritz LH. Subscores of the FAB differentiate frontotemporal lobar degeneration from AD. Neurology. 2005;65:726–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Castiglioni S, Pelati O, Zuffi M, et al. The Frontal Assessment Battery does not differentiate frontotemporal dementia from Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2006;22:125–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Papageorgiou S, Nikaki M, Kontaxis T, et al. Can the frontal assessment battery differentiate between frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD)? Eur J Neurol. 2009;16 Suppl 3:442. abstract P2317.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Woodward M, Brodaty H, Boundy K, Ames D, Blanch G, Balshaw R, PRIME Study Group. Does executive impairment define a frontal variant of Alzheimer’s disease? Int Psychogeriatr. 2010;22:1280–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Larner AJ. Can the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) help in the diagnosis of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia? A pragmatic study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2012; in press.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Davies RR, Dawson K, Mioshi E, Erzinclioglu S, Hodges JR. Differentiation of semantic dementia and Alzheimer’s disease using the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination (ACE). Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2008;23:370–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Pérez-Martinez D, Porta-Etessam J, Anaya B, Puente-Muñoz AI. Digit span index: a new diagnostic tool to differential diagnosis [sic] between Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal dementia. J Neurol. 2006;253(suppl2):II/93. abstract P364.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Siri S, Benaglio I, Frigerio A, Binetti G, Cappa SF. A brief neuropsychological assessment for the differential diagnosis between frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Eur J Neurol. 2001;8:125–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Walker AJ, Meares S, Sachdev PS, Brodaty H. The differentiation of mild frontotemporal dementia from Alzheimer’s disease and healthy aging by neuropsychological tests. Int Psychogeriatr. 2005;17:57–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Hutchinson AD, Mathias JL. Neuropsychological deficits in frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer’s disease: a meta-analytic review. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007;78:917–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Rahman S, Sahakian BJ, Hodges JR, Rogers RD, Robbins TW. Specific cognitive deficits in mild frontal variant frontotemporal dementia. Brain. 1999;122:1469–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Bechara A, Damasio AR, Damasio H, Anderson SW. Insensitivity to future consequences following damage to human prefrontal cortex. Cognition. 1994;50:7–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Rogers RD, Everitt BJ, Baldacchino A, et al. Dissociable deficits in the decision-making cognition of chronic amphetamine abusers, opiate abusers, patients with focal damage to prefrontal cortex, and tryptophan-depleted normal volunteers: evidence for monoaminergic mechanisms. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1999;20:322–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Dubois B, Feldman HH, Jacova C, et al. Research criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: revising the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Lancet Neurol. 2007;6:734–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Hort J, O’Brien JT, Gainotti G, et al. EFNS guidelines for the diagnosis and management of Alzheimer’s disease. Eur J Neurol. 2010;17:1236–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    McKhann GM, Knopman DS, Chertkow H, et al. The diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers Dement. 2011;7:263–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Cullen B, O’Neill B, Evans JJ, Coen RF, Lawlor BA. A review of screening tests for cognitive impairment. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007;78:790–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Woodford HJ, George J. Cognitive assessment in the elderly: a review of clinical methods. Q J Med. 2007;100:469–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Draganski B, Ashburner J, Hutton C, et al. Regional specificity of MRI contrast parameter changes in normal ageing revealed by voxel-based quantification (VBQ). Neuroimage. 2011;55:1423–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Stonnington CM, Chu C, Kloppel S, et al. Predicting clinical scores from magnetic resonance scans in Alzheimer’s disease. Neuroimage. 2010;51:1405–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew J. Larner
    • 1
  1. 1.Cognitive Function Clinic, Walton Centre for Neurology and NeurosurgeryLiverpoolUK

Personalised recommendations