Pharmacological Treatments

  • Olivia GosseriesEmail author
  • Marie Thonnard
  • Steven Laureys


We review the current state of knowledge for potentially useful drugs acting on the recovery of consciousness in severely brain damaged patients. Exploratory and retrospective studies as well as case reports concerning sporadic cases of spectacular recovery are discussed regarding drugs such as amantadine, levodopa, bromocriptine, apomorphine, methyphenidate, zolpidem, baclofen, sertaline, amitriptyline, desipramine, and lamotrigine. Indications on the underlying mechanisms possibly explaining the effects of these drugs on the awakening and recovery of consciousness are also reported in this challenging population.


Vegetative State Globus Pallidus Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Conscious State Minimally Conscious State 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Olivia Gosseries
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Marie Thonnard
    • 1
    • 2
  • Steven Laureys
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Coma Science Group, Cyclotron Research CentreUniversity of LiègeLiègeBelgium
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyUniversity Hospital of LiègeLiègeBelgium
  3. 3.National Fund for Scientific ResearchLiègeBelgium

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