Success and Anticipated Pregnancy Outcomes for Oocyte and Embryo Donation

  • Candice O’Hern Perfetto
  • Lynn M. Westphal


Almost three decades ago, oocyte and embryo donation became an option for women who had experienced unsuccessful fertility treatments or were not candidates for other assisted reproductive technologies. Women with surgical or natural menopause, diminished ovarian reserve, premature ovarian failure, recurrent pregnancy loss, poor ovarian response to stimulation, or carriers of an inheritable disorder were provided with a new option for fertility. Women that were previously considered sterile were now able to have successful pregnancy and childbirth.

What originated in the cattle breeding industry years prior was introduced to human patients in 1983. Originally, the technique relied on embryo transfer after uterine lavage of the donor. The naturally cycling donor underwent intrauterine insemination from the partner of the recipient. After fertilization, the uterus was irrigated with the intent to capture embryos that had not implanted. The embryos would then be replaced into the recipient’s uterus. Buster et al. reported the first successful live birth using the uterine lavage technique. The initial attempts were completed on recipients that still had normal menstrual cycles, therefore not requiring additional hormones.


Embryo Transfer Assisted Reproductive Technology Live Birth Rate Ovarian Reserve Recurrent Pregnancy Loss 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyStanford UniversityPalo AltoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyStanford UniversityPalo AltoUSA

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