Advertisement

Cognitive Assessment

  • A. J. Larner
Chapter

Abstract

As with all neurological conditions, the assessment of patients with cognitive complaints begins with history taking and physical examination, of which the former is by far the most important aspect. In addition to the usual semistructured approach (what, when, where, who, how, why?), the importance of obtaining collateral history from a knowledgeable informant cannot be overemphasized (Larner 2005a, b, 2009a). In some centers, a provisional diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease in predementia stage is based largely on informant report (Burns and Morris 2008). The key question which history taking should seek to answer is whether the account is one of self-reported lapses in memory retrieval in the absence of collateral verification, or an informant report of memory impairment with loss of self-appreciation by the patient, the latter being more in keeping with a neurodegenerative disorder (Burns and Morris 2008: 53; Larner 2011a).

Keywords

Mild Cognitive Impairment Dementia With Lewy Body MMSE Score Diagnostic Utility Diagnostic Odds Ratio 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ala T, Hughes LF, Kyrouac GA, Ghobrial MW, Elble RJ. The Mini-Mental State Exam may help in the differentiation of dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer’s disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2002;17:503–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexopoulos P, Greim B, Nadler K, Martens U, Krecklow B, Domes G, Herpertz S, Kurz A. Validation of the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination for detecting early Alzheimer’s disease and mild vascular dementia in a German population. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2006;22:385–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alexopoulos P, Ebert A, Richter-Schmidinger T et al. Validation of the German revised Addenbrooke’s cognitive examination for detecting mild cognitive impairment, mild dementia in Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2010;29:448–56.Google Scholar
  4. Altman DG, Machin D, Bryant TN, Gardner MJ, editors. Statistics with confidence. Confidence intervals and statistical guidelines. 2nd ed. London: BMJ Books; 2000.Google Scholar
  5. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, Text revision (DSM-IV-TR). 4th ed. Washington: American Psychiatric Association; 2000.Google Scholar
  6. Bachmann LM, Puhan MA, ter Riet G, Bossuyt PM. Sample sizes of studies on diagnostic accuracy: literature survey. BMJ. 2006;332:1127–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bak TH, Rogers TT, Crawford LM, Hearn VC, Mathuranath PS, Hodges JR. Cognitive bedside assessment in atypical parkinsonian syndromes. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005;76:420–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bier JC, Ventura M, Donckels V, et al. Is the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination effective to detect frontotemporal dementia? J Neurol. 2004;251:428–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bier JC, Donckels V, van Eyll E, Claes T, Slama H, Fery P, Vokaer M. The French Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination is effective in detecting dementia in a French-speaking population. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2005;19:15–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Black WC, Armstrong P. Communicating the significance of radiologic test results: the likelihood ratio. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1986;147:1313–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bossuyt PM, Reitsma JB, Bruns DE, et al. Towards complete and accurate reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy: the STARD initiative. BMJ. 2003a;326:41–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bossuyt PM, Reitsma JB, Bruns DE, et al. The STARD statement for reporting studies of diagnostic accuracy: explanation and elaboration. Clin Chem. 2003b;49:7–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bourke GJ, Daly LE, McGilvray J. Interpretation and uses of medical statistics. 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1985.Google Scholar
  14. Bowie P, Branton T, Holmes J. Should the Mini Mental State Examination be used to monitor dementia treatments? Lancet. 1999;354:1527–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brown J, Pengas G, Dawson K, Brown LA, Clatworthy P. Self administered cognitive screening test (TYM) for detection of Alzheimer’s disease: cross sectional study. BMJ. 2009;338:b2030.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Burkhardt H, Karaminejad E, Gladisch R. A short performance test can help to predict adherence to self-administration of insulin in elderly patients with diabetes. Age Ageing. 2006; 35:449–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Burns A, Lawlor B, Craig S. Assessment scales in old age psychiatry. 2nd ed. London: Martin Dunitz; 2004.Google Scholar
  18. Burns JM, Morris JC. Mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer’s disease. Chichester: Wiley; 2008.Google Scholar
  19. Buschke H, Kuslansky G, Katz M, et al. Screening for dementia with the Memory Impairment Screen. Neurology. 1999;52:231–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Caslake CR, Summers F, McConachie D, et al. Mini-Mental Parkinson’s test as a cognitive screening tool in people with Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2009;80:e3 (abstract).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Castiglioni S, Pelati O, Zuffi M, et al. The Frontal Assessment Battery does not differentiate frontotemporal dementia from Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2006;22:125–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chong MS, Chin JJ, Saw SM, et al. Screening for dementia in the older Chinese with a single question test on progressive forgetfulness. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006;21:442–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cohen J. A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educ Psychol Meas. 1960;20:37–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Copeland JR, Davidson IA, Dewey ME, et al. Alzheimer’s disease, other dementias, depression and pseudodementia: prevalence, incidence and three-year outcome in Liverpool. Br J Psychiatry. 1992;161:230–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Copeland JR, McCracken CF, Dewey ME, Wilson KC, Doran M, Gilmore C, Scott A, Larkin BA. Undifferentiated dementia, Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia: age- and gender-related incidence in Liverpool. The MRC-ALPHA study. Br J Psychiatry. 1999;175:433–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Crum RM, Anthony JC, Bassett SS, Folstein MF. Population-based norms for the Mini-Mental State Examination by age and educational level. JAMA. 1993;269:2386–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cullen B, O’Neill B, Evans JJ, Coen RF, Lawlor BA. A review of screening tests for cognitive impairment. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007;78:790–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Damian AM, Jacobson SA, Hentz JG, et al. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Mini-Mental State Examination as screening instruments for cognitive impairment: item analyses and threshold scores. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2011; 31:126–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Davey RJ, Jamieson S. The validity of using the mini mental state examination in NICE dementia guidelines. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75:343–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Davies RR, Dawson K, Mioshi E, Erzinclioglu S, Hodges JR. Differentiation of semantic dementia and Alzheimer’s disease using the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination (ACE). Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2008;23:370–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Deeks JJ, Altman DG. Diagnostic tests 4: likelihood ratios. BMJ. 2004;329:168–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Doran M, Larner AJ. EEG findings in dementia with Lewy bodies causing diagnostic confusion with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Eur J Neurol. 2004;11:838–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Doran M, Vinjamuri S, Collins J, Parker D, Larner AJ. SPECT perfusion imaging in the differential diagnosis of dementia: a retrospective regional audit. Int J Clin Pract. 2005;59:496–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dubois B, Slachevsky A, Litvan I, Pillon B. The FAB: a frontal assessment battery at bedside. Neurology. 2000;55:1621–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dubois B, Touchon J, Portet F, Ousset PJ, Vellas B, Michel B. “The 5 words”: a simple and sensitive test for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease [in French]. Presse Med. 2002;31:1696–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Dubois B, Feldman HH, Jacova C, et al. Research criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: revising the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Lancet Neurol. 2007;6:734–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dudas RB, Berrios GE, Hodges JR. The Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination (ACE) in the differential diagnosis of early dementias versus affective disorder. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005;13:218–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Feher EP, Mahurin RK, Doody RS, Cooke N, Sims J, Pirozzolo FJ. Establishing the limits of the Mini-Mental State. Examination of subtests. Arch Neurol. 1992;49:87–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ferman TJ, Smith GE, Boeve BF, et al. DLB fluctuations: specific features that reliably differentiate DLB from AD and normal aging. Neurology. 2004;62:181–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ferran J, Wilson K, Doran M, Ghadiali E, Johnson F, Cooper P, McCracken C. The early onset dementias: a study of clinical characteristics and service use. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1996;11:863–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR. “Mini-Mental State.” A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res. 1975;12:189–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Freedman M, Leach L, Kaplan E, Winocur G, Shulman K, Delis DC. Clock drawing. A neuropsychological analysis. New York: Oxford University Press; 1994.Google Scholar
  43. Gaber TA. Evaluation of the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination’s validity in a brain injury rehabilitation setting. Brain Inj. 2008;22:589–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Garcia-Caballero A, Garcia-Lado I, Gonzalez-Hermida J, et al. Validation of the Spanish version of the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination in a rural community in Spain. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006;21:239–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gifford DR, Cummings JL. Evaluating dementia screening tests. Methodologic standards to rate their performance. Neurology. 1999;52:224–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Han L, Cole M, Bellevance F, McCusker J, Primeau F. Tracking cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease using the Mini-Mental State Examination: a meta-analysis. Int Psychogeriatr. 2000;12:231–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hancock P, Larner AJ. Diagnostic utility of the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) and its combination with the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) in a memory clinic-based population. Int Psychogeriatr. 2009;21:526–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hancock P, Larner AJ. Test Your Memory (TYM) test: diagnostic utility in a memory clinic population. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2011;26:976–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hancock P, Wike J, Larner AJ. Clinical experience with CANTAB-PAL in the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Poster presentation, 17th Alzheimer Europe Conference, Estoril, Portugal, 9–11 May 2007.Google Scholar
  50. Hanley JA, McNeil BJ. The meaning and use of the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Radiology. 1982;143:29–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Hanley JA, McNeil BJ. A method of comparing the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves derived from the same cases. Radiology. 1983;148:839–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hinkle DE, Wiersma W, Jurs SG. Applied statistics for the behavioral sciences. 5th ed. New York: Houghton Mifflin; 1998.Google Scholar
  53. Hoehn MM, Yahr MD. Parkinsonism: onset, progression and mortality. Neurology. 1967;17:427–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Holmes C, Lovestone S. Long-term cognitive and functional decline in late onset Alzheimer’s disease: therapeutic implications. Age Ageing. 2003;32:200–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hoops S, Nazem S, Siderow AD, et al. Validity of the MoCA and MMSE in the detection of MCI and dementia in Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2009;73:1738–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ibrahim I, Young CA, Larner AJ. Fornix damage from solitary subependymal giant cell astrocytoma causing postoperative amnesic syndrome. Br J Hosp Med. 2009;70:478–9.Google Scholar
  57. Jaeschke R, Guyatt G, Sackett DL. Users’ guide to the medical literature. III. How to use an article about a diagnostic test. B. What are the results and will they help me in caring for my patients? JAMA. 1994;271:703–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kalbe E, Kessler J, Calabrese P, et al. DemTect: a new, sensitive cognitive screening test to support the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and early dementia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2004;19:136–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Konstantinopoulou E, Kosmidis MH, Ioannidis P, Kiosseoglou G, Karacostas D, Taskos N. Adaptation of Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised for the Greek population. Eur J Neurol. 2011;18:442–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Larner AJ. MMSE subscores and the diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2003;18:855–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Larner AJ. Delirium: diagnosis, aetiopathogenesis, and treatment. Adv Clin Neurosci Rehabil. 2004a;4(2):28–9.Google Scholar
  62. Larner AJ. Use of MMSE to differentiate Alzheimer’s disease from dementia with Lewy bodies. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2004b; 19:1209–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Larner AJ. “Who came with you?” A diagnostic observation in patients with memory problems? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005a;76:1739.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Larner AJ. Two simple questions in the identification of dementia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005b;76:1317 (abstract 023).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Larner AJ. “Dementia unmasked”: atypical, acute aphasic, presentations of neurodegenerative dementing disease. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2005c;108:8–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Larner AJ. An audit of the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination (ACE) in clinical practice. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005d; 20:593–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Larner AJ. Neurological signs of aging. In: Pathy MSJ, Sinclair AJ, Morley JE, editors. Principles and practice of geriatric medicine. 4th ed. Chichester: Wiley; 2006a. p. 743–50.Google Scholar
  68. Larner AJ. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS): audit of pragmatic use in the Cognitive Function Clinic. J Neurol. 2006b;253 Suppl 2:II92 (abstract P363).Google Scholar
  69. Larner AJ. An audit of the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination (ACE) in clinical practice. 2. Longitudinal change. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006c;21:698–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Larner AJ. Carphologia, or floccillation. Adv Clin Neurosci Rehabil. 2007a;7(4):25.Google Scholar
  71. Larner AJ. DemTect in the diagnosis of dementia: first 100 patients. In: Iqbal K, Winblad B, Avila J, editors. Alzheimer’s disease: new advances. Collection of selected articles of papers presented at the 10th International Conference on Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders. Madrid, Spain, July 15–20, 2006. Bologna: Medimond; 2007b. p. 177–81.Google Scholar
  72. Larner AJ. DemTect: 1-year experience of a neuropsychological screening test for dementia. Age Ageing. 2007c;36:326–7.Google Scholar
  73. Larner AJ. Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination (ACE) for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of dementia. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2007d;109:491–4.Google Scholar
  74. Larner AJ. Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) in day-to-day clinical practice. Age Ageing. 2007e; 36:685–6.Google Scholar
  75. Larner AJ. Of clocks and mirrors: the Backward Clock Test. Eur J Neurol. 2007f;14(Suppl. 1):100 (abstract P1265).Google Scholar
  76. Larner A. New tests are needed. BMA News. 2007g;19 May:10.Google Scholar
  77. Larner AJ. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS): pragmatic study of Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal dementia. Eur J Neurol. 2008a;15 Suppl 3:283 (abstract P2287).Google Scholar
  78. Larner AJ. Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised in day-to-day clinical practice: reply. Age Ageing. 2008b;37:350–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Larner AJ. “Attended alone” sign: validity and reliability for the exclusion of dementia. Age Ageing. 2009a;38:476–8.Google Scholar
  80. Larner AJ. ACE-R: cross-sectional and longitudinal use for cognitive assessment. In: Fisher A, Hanin I, editors. New trends in Alzheimer and Parkinson related disorders: ADPD 2009. Collection of selected free papers from the 9th International Conference on Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease AD/PD. Prague, Czech Republic, March 11–15, 2009. Bologna: Medimond International Proceedings; 2009b. p. 103–7.Google Scholar
  81. Larner AJ. Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised: cross-sectional and longitudinal use for cognitive assessment. Neurodegener Dis. 2009c;6(Suppl. 1):194.Google Scholar
  82. Larner AJ. Intrafamilial clinical phenotypic heterogeneity with MAPT gene splice site IVS10+16C>T mutation. J Neurol Sci. 2009d;287:253–6.Google Scholar
  83. Larner AJ. Is Mini-Mental Parkinson (MMP) a useful screening test in a cognitive clinic population? Eur J Neurol. 2010;17 Suppl 3:205 (abstract P1342).Google Scholar
  84. Larner AJ. An approach to the cognitively-impaired adult. http://www.elearningdigital.com/will/An_Approach_to_the_Cognitively_impaired_Adult/index.html. 2011a.
  85. Larner AJ. A dictionary of neurological signs. 3rd ed. New York: Springer; 2011b.Google Scholar
  86. Larner AJ. Head turning sign: utility in dementia diagnosis. 2011c, submitted.Google Scholar
  87. Larner AJ. Teleneurology by internet and telephone. A study in self-help. London: Springer, 2011d.Google Scholar
  88. Larner AJ. Camptodactyly: a 10-year series. Eur J Dermatol. 2011e;21:771–5.Google Scholar
  89. Larner AJ. Mini-Mental Parkinson (MMP) as a dementia screening test: comparison with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Curr Aging Sci. 2011f;4:in press.Google Scholar
  90. Larner AJ. Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB): a pragmatic study. Neurodegener Dis. 2011g;8(Suppl. 1):565.Google Scholar
  91. Larner AJ. Neurological signs of aging. In: Sinclair A, Morley JE, Vellas B, editors. Pathy’s principles and practice of geriatric medicine. 5th ed. Chichester: Wiley; 2012a:in press.Google Scholar
  92. Larner AJ. Screening utility of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA): in place of or as well as the MMSE? Int Psychogeriatr. 2012b;24:in press.Google Scholar
  93. Larner AJ. FTDP-17: two-year follow-up of motor and cognitive features following autologous stem cell transplantation. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2012c;accepted.Google Scholar
  94. Larner AJ, Moffat MA, Ghadiali E, Majid S, English P, Williams G. Amnesia following profound hypoglycaemia in a type 1 diabetic patient. Eur J Neurol. 2003a;10 Suppl 1:92 (abstract P1170).Google Scholar
  95. Larner AJ, Downes JJ, Hanley JR, Tsivilis D, Doran M. Developmental prosopagnosia: a clinical and neuropsychological study. J Neurol. 2003b;250 Suppl 2:II156 (Abstract P591).Google Scholar
  96. Larner AJ, Ray PS, Doran M. The R269H mutation in presenilin-1 presenting as late-onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurol Sci. 2007;252:173–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Larner AJ, Young CA. Acute amnesia in multiple sclerosis revisited. Int MS J. 2009;16:102–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Lipton AM, Ohman KA, Womack KB, Hynan LS, Ninman ET, Lacritz LH. Subscores of the FAB differentiate frontotemporal lobar degeneration from AD. Neurology. 2005;65:726–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Lonie JA, Parra-Rodriguez MA, Tierney KM, et al. Predicting outcome in mild cognitive impairment: 4-year follow-up study. Br J Psychiatry. 2010;197:135–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Lozsadi DA, Larner AJ. Prevalence and causes of seizures at the time of diagnosis of probable Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2006;22:121–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Lusted L. Introduction to medical decision making. Springfield: Charles Thomas; 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Magni E, Binetti G, Padovani A, Cappa SF, Bianchetti A, Trabucchi M. The Mini-Mental State Examination in Alzheimer’s disease and multi-infarct dementia. Int Psychogeriatr. 1996;8:127–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Mahieux F, Michelet D, Manifacier M-J, Boller F, Fermanian J, Guillard A. Mini-Mental Parkinson: first validation study of a new bedside test constructed for Parkinson’s disease. Behav Neurol. 1995;8:15–22.Google Scholar
  104. Mathuranath PS, Nestor PJ, Berrios GE, Rakowicz W, Hodges JR. A brief cognitive test battery to differentiate Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal dementia. Neurology. 2000;55:1613–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Mathuranath PS, Hodges JR, Mathew R, Cherian PJ, George A, Bak TH. Adaptation of the ACE for a Malayalam speaking population in southern India. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2004;19: 1188–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Mattis S. Mental status examination for organic mental syndrome in the elderly. In: Bellack R, Karasu B, editors. Geriatric psychiatry. New York: Grune and Stratton; 1976. p. 77–121.Google Scholar
  107. Mattis S. Dementia rating scale. Windsor: NFER-Nelson; 1992.Google Scholar
  108. McCrea MA. Mild traumatic brain injury and postconcussion syndrome. The new evidence base for diagnosis and treatment. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2008.Google Scholar
  109. McKeith IG, Galasko D, Kosaka K, et al. Consensus guidelines for the clinical and pathologic diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB): report of the consortium on DLB international workshop. Neurology. 1996;47:1113–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. McKeith IG, Perry EK, Perry RH for the Consortium on Dementia with Lewy Bodies. Report of the second dementia with Lewy body international workshop. Neurology. 1999;53:902–5.Google Scholar
  111. McKeith IG, Dickson DW, Lowe J, et al. Diagnosis and management of dementia with Lewy bodies: third report of the DLB Consortium. Neurology. 2005;65:1863–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. McKhann G, Drachman D, Folstein M, et al. Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Report of the NINCDS-ADRDA work group under the auspices of the Department of Health and Human Service Task forces on Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology. 1984;34:939–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. McKhann GM, Albert MS, Grossman M, Miller B, Dickson D, Trojanowski JQ. Clinical and pathological diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia. Report of the Work Group on Frontotemporal Dementia and Pick’s disease. Arch Neurol. 2001;58:1803–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. McKhann GM, Knopman DS, Chertkow H, et al. The diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers Dement. 2011;7:263–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Mioshi E, Dawson K, Mitchell J, Arnold R, Hodges JR. The Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination Revised: a brief cognitive test battery for dementia screening. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006;21:1078–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Mitchell AJ. The clinical significance of subjective memory complaints in the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and dementia: a meta-analysis. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2008;23:1191–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Mitchell AJ. Sensitivity x PPV is a recognized test called the clinical utility index (CUI+). Eur J Epidemiol. 2011;26:251–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Mitchell AJ, McGlinchey JB, Young D, Chelminski I, Zimmerman M. Accuracy of specific symptoms in the diagnosis of major depressive disorder in psychiatric out-patients: data from the MIDAS project. Psychol Med. 2009;39:1107–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Nasreddine ZS, Phillips NA, Bédirian V, Charbonneau S, Whitehead V, Collin I, Cummings JL, Chertkow HJ. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: a brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53:695–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Guidance on the use of donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (Technology Appraisal Guidance No. 19). London: NICE; 2001.Google Scholar
  121. Neary D, Snowden JS, Gustafson L, et al. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration: a consensus on clinical diagnostic criteria. Neurology. 1998;51:1546–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Nieuwenhuis-Mark RE. The death knoll for the MMSE: has it outlived its purpose? J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2010;23:151–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Papageorgiou S, Nikaki M, Kontaxis T, et al. Can the frontal assessment battery differentiate between frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD)? Eur J Neurol. 2009;16 Suppl 3:442 (abstract P2317).Google Scholar
  124. Parrao-Diaz T, Chana-Cuevas P, Juri-Claverias C, Kunstmann C, Tapia-Nunez J. Evaluation of cognitive impairment in a population of patients with Parkinson’s disease by means of the mini mental Parkinson test [in Spanish]. Rev Neurol. 2005; 40:339–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Petersen RC, Smith GE, Waring SC, Ivnik RJ, Tangalos EG, Kokmen E. Mild cognitive impairment: clinical characterization and outcome. Arch Neurol. 1999;56:303–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Poppelreuter W. Die psychischen Schädigungen durch Kopfschuss im Kriege 1914/17: mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der patho­psychologischen, pädagogischen, gewerblichen und sozialen Beziehungen (2 volumes: Band 1: Die Störungen der niederen und höheren Sehleistungen durch Verletzungen des Okzipitalhirns; Band 2: Die Herabsetzung der körperlichen Leistungsfähigkeit und des Arbeitswillens durch Hirnverletzung im Vergleich zu Normalen und Psychogenen). Leipzig: Voss, 1917–1918.Google Scholar
  127. Qizilbash N. Evidence-based diagnosis. In: Qizilbash N, Schneider LS, Chui H, et al., editors. Evidence-based dementia practice. Oxford: Blackwell; 2002. p. 18–25.Google Scholar
  128. Rockwood K, Cosway S, Carver D, et al. The risk of dementia and death following delirium. Age Ageing. 1999;28:551–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Román GC, Tatemichi TK, Erkinjuntti T, et al. Vascular dementia: diagnostic criteria for research studies. Report of the NINDS-AIREN international workshop. Neurology. 1993;43: 250–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Rosen WG, Mohs RC, Davis KL. A new rating scale for Alzheimer’s disease. Am J Psychiatry. 1984;141:1356–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Scheurich A, Muller MJ, Slessmeier T, et al. Validating the DemTect with 18-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography as a sensitive neuropsychological screening test for early Alzheimer disease in patients of a memory clinic. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2005;20:271–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Sells R, Larner AJ. The Poppelreuter figure visual perceptual function test for dementia diagnosis. Prog Neurol Psychiatry. 2011;15(2):17–8, 20–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Slachevsky A, Villalpando JM, Sarazin M, Hahn BV, Pillon B, Dubois B. Frontal assessment battery and differential diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol. 2004;61:1104–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Smith T, Gildeh N, Holmes C. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment: validity and utility in a memory clinic setting. Can J Psychiatry. 2007;52:329–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. St. John P, Montgomery P. Is subjective memory loss correlated with MMSE scores or dementia? J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2003;16:80–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Stokholm J, Vogel A, Johannsen P, Waldemar G. Validation of the Danish Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination as a screening test in a memory clinic. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2009;27:361–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Storton K, Larner AJ. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA): diagnostic utility in a cognitive clinic population. Alzheimers Dement. 2011;7 Suppl 1:S166 (abstract P1–171).Google Scholar
  138. Swinscow TDV. Statistics at square one. 8th ed. London: BMJ Books; 1983.Google Scholar
  139. Tate RL. A compendium of tests, scales, and questionnaires. The practitioner’s guide to measuring outcomes after acquired brain impairment. Hove: Psychology Press; 2010.Google Scholar
  140. The Ronald and Nancy Reagan Research Institute of the Alzheimer’s Association and the National Institute on Aging Working Group. Consensus report of the Working Group on: “Molecular and biochemical markers of Alzheimer’s disease”. Neurobiol Aging. 1998;19:109–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Tombaugh TN, McIntyre NJ. The Mini-Mental State Examination: a comprehensive review. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1992;40:922–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Wilson M, Doran M, Enevoldson TP, Larner AJ. Cognitive profiles associated with intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula. Age Ageing. 2010;39:389–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Winblad B, Palmer K, Kivipelto M, et al. Mild cognitive impairment – beyond controversies, towards a consensus: report of the International Working Group on Mild Cognitive Impairment. J Int Med. 2004;256:240–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Wong S, Hart IK, Larner AJ. Revised Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination in the assessment of voltage-gated potassium channel antibody-positive non-paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. Eur J Neurol. 2008;15 Suppl 3:303 (abstract P2368).Google Scholar
  145. Wong SH, Saunders M, Larner AJ, Das K, Hart IK. An effective immunotherapy regimen for VGKC antibody-positive limbic encephalitis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2010;81:1167–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Woodford HJ, George J. Cognitive assessment in the elderly: a review of clinical methods. Q J Med. 2007;100:469–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Woodward M, Brodaty H, Boundy K, Ames D, Blanch G, Balshaw R, PRIME Study Group. Does executive impairment define a frontal variant of Alzheimer’s disease? Int Psychogeriatr. 2010;22:1280–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Youden WJ. Index for rating diagnostic tests. Cancer. 1950;3:32–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Zaccai J, McCracken C, Brayne C. A systematic study of prevalence and incidence studies of dementia with Lewy bodies. Age Ageing. 2005;34:561–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Zadikoff C, Fox SH, Tang-Wai DF, et al. A comparison of the mini mental state exam to the Montreal cognitive assessment in identifying cognitive deficits in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2008;23:297–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Zweig MH, Campbell G. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) plots: a fundamental tool in clinical medicine. Clin Chem. 1993;39:561–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. J. Larner
    • 1
  1. 1.Cognitive Function ClinicWalton Centre for Neurology and NeurosurgeryLiverpoolUK

Personalised recommendations