Designing Unit Load Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems

Chapter

Abstract

The successful performance of the unit load automated storage and retrieval systems is dependent upon the appropriate design and optimization process. In this chapter a model of designing unit load automated storage and retrieval system for the single- and multi-aisle systems is presented. Because of the required conditions that the unit load automated storage and retrieval systems should be technically highly efficient and that it should be designed on reasonable expenses, the objective function represents minimum total cost. The objective function combines elements of layout, time-dependant part, the initial investment and the operational costs. Due to the nonlinear, multi-variable and discrete shape of the objective function, the method of genetic algorithms has been used for the optimization process of decision variables. The presented model proves to be a useful and flexible tool for choosing a particular type of the single- or multi-aisle system in designing unit load automated storage and retrieval systems. Computational analysis of the design model indicates the model suitability for addressing industry-size problems.

Keywords

Europe Expense 

Nomenclature

AS/RS

Automated storage and retrieval system

S/R machine

Storage and retrieval machine

SR

Storage rack

I/O

Input/output location

TUL

Transport unit load

SC

Single command cycle

DC

Dual command cycle

3D

Three dimensional

PP

Palette position

GA

Genetics algorithms

SIT

Square-In-Time

TC

Total cost

R

Number of picking aisles (variable)

Y

Number of SR (variable); Y = 2R

S

Number of S/R machines (variable)

Nx

Number of storage compartments in horizontal direction (variable)

Ny

Number of storage compartments in vertical direction (variable)

Q (TUL)

Storage capacity

Pf (TUL/h)

Throughput capacity

Min TC (EUR)

Minimum total cost

Pz (m2)

Surface of the land for warehouse

Dz (/)

Share for the warehouse building

C1 (EUR/m2)

Cost of buying the land

C2 (EUR/m2)

Cost of laying the foundation of warehouse per square meter of foundation

C3 (EUR/m2)

Cost of building the walls of warehouse per square meter of walls

C4 (EUR/m2)

Cost of building the roof of warehouse per square meter of roof

C5 (EUR/m)

Cost of buying upright frames per meter

C6 (EUR/m)

Cost of buying rack beams per meter

C7 (EUR/piece)

Cost of buying buffers per piece

C8 (EUR/PP)

Cost of assembly per pallet position

C9 (EUR/PP)

Cost of fire safety per pallet position

C10 (EUR/m3)

Cost of air conditioning per cubic meter

C11 (EUR/piece)

Cost of buying single-aisle S/R machine

C12 (EUR/m)

Cost of the picking aisle per meter

C13 (EUR/piece)

Cost of buying multi-aisle S/R machine which includes aisle transferring machine

C14 (EUR/m)

Cost of the cross aisle per meter

HWAR (m)

Height of the warehouse

Hmin (m)

Minimum height of the warehouse

Hmax (m)

Maximum height of the warehouse

LTZ (m)

Length of the transport zone

LRS (m)

Length of the storage rack

HRS (m)

Height of the storage rack

LWAR (m)

Length of the warehouse

Lmin (m)

Minimum length of the warehouse

Lmax (m)

Maximum length of the warehouse

WWAR (m)

Width of the warehouse

Wmin (m)

Minimum width of the warehouse

Wmax (m)

Maximum width of the warehouse

WRD (m)

Width of the S/R machine

HRD (m)

Lift height of the S/R machine

g (m)

Length of the palette/TUL

h (m)

Height of the palette/TUL

w (m)

Width of the palette/TUL

n (/)

Number of TUL in the storage compartment

b1 (m)

Safety addition to the width of the storage compartment

b2 (m)

Safety addition to the height of the storage compartment

b3 (m)

Width of the storage compartment

b4 (m)

Width of the upright frame

b5 (m)

Thickness of the upright frame

b6 (m)

Height of rack beams

b7 (m)

Elevation of the first level storage compartment from the floor

b8 (m)

Safety spacing between racks that are placed close to each other

b9 (m)

Safety addition to the height of the warehouse

b10 (m)

Addition to the width of the palette at input buffer

b20 (m)

Addition to the end of the warehouse

Lv (m)

Length of the rack beam

vx (m/s)

Maximum velocity of the S/R machine in the horizontal direction

vy (m/s)

Maximum velocity of the hoisted carriage in the vertical direction

vi (m/s)

Maximum velocity of the transferring vehicle in the cross warehouse aisle

ax (m/s2)

Acceleration/deceleration of the S/R machine in the horizontal direction

ay (m/s2)

Acceleration/deceleration of the hoisted carriage in the vertical direction

ai (m/s2)

Acceleration/deceleration of the transferring vehicle in the cross warehouse aisle

T(SC) (s)

Expected single command travel time

nSC (/)

Number of single command cycles

T(DC) (s)

Expected dual command travel time

nDC (/)

Number of dual command cycles

Tshift (s)

Time of one shift

η (%)

Efficiency of the S/R machine

T01 (s)

Pickup time

T02 (s)

Deposit time

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of MariborMariborSlovenia
  2. 2.Faculty of Civil EngineeringUniversity of MariborMariborSlovenia

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