Advanced Non-Invasive Hemodynamic Monitoring



With the ability to measure parameters such as cardiac output, preload and afterload the pulmonary artery (PA) catheter has been considered the gold standard of hemodynamic monitoring for a long time. In recent years it has partially been replaced by less invasive technologies in many institutions.


Catheter Ischemia Lactate Bicarbonate Catecholamine 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pulmonary and Critical CareUniversity of CaliforniaIrvine, OrangeUSA
  2. 2.Department of AnesthesiaStanford School of MedicineStanfordUSA

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