The Wave Nature of Being: Ultradian Rhythms and Mind-Body Communication

  • E. L. Rossi
  • B. M. Lippincott


A major ideal of science is to integrate apparently different phenomena into a general theory of nature. The more widely divergent the phenomena that we can bring together in a meaningful way, the greater the beauty, scope and potential utility of the theory. We admire the simple elegance whereby Newton’s theory of gravitation proposed a grand unification of celestial mechanics — the orbits of the sun, moon and planets — with the humble fall of an apocryphal apple here on earth.


Circadian Rhythm Wave Nature Ultradian Rhythm Hypnotic Suggestion Hypnotic Susceptibility 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aaronson B (1969a) The hypnotic induction of the void. Paper presented at the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis, San Francisco, CAGoogle Scholar
  2. Aaronson B (1969b) Time, time stance, and existence. Paper presented at the meetings of the International Society for the Study of Time, Freibourg, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  3. Abraham R, Shaw C (1983a) Dynamics — the geometry of behavior. Part 1: periodic behavior. Vismath vol 1. Aerial Press, Santa Cruz, CAGoogle Scholar
  4. Abraham R, Shaw C (1983b) Dynamics - the geometry of behavior. Part 2: Chaotic behavior. Vismath vol 2. Aerial Press, Santa Cruz, CAGoogle Scholar
  5. Abraham R, Shaw C (1983c) Dynamics - the geometry of behavior. Part 3: Global behavior. Vismath vol 3. Aerial Press, Santa Cruz, CAGoogle Scholar
  6. Alberts B, Bray D, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Watson J (1989) Molecular biology of the cell, 2nd edn. Garland Publishing Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Aldrich K, Bernstein D (1987) The effect of time of day on hypnotizability. Int J Clin Exp Hypn 35: 141–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Araoz D (1982) Hypnosis and sex therapy. Brunner/Mazel, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Aserinsky E, Kleitman N (1953) Regularly occurring periods of eye motility and concomitant phenomena during sleep. Science 118: 273–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Balthazard C, Woody E (1985) The “stuff” of hypnotic performance: a review of psychometric approaches. Psychol Bull 98: 283–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Barber J, Mayer D (1977) Evaluation of the efficacy and neural mechanism of a hypnotic analgesia procedure in experimental and clinical dental pain. Pain 4: 41–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Barber TX (1972) Suggested (“hypnotic”) behavior: the trance paradigm versus an alternative paradigm. In: Fromm E, Shor R (eds) Hypnosis: research developments and perspectives, 2nd edn. Aldine, Chicago, IL, pp 115–182Google Scholar
  13. Barber TX (1984) Changing unchangeable bodily processes by (hypnotic) suggestions: a new look at hypnosis, cognitions, imagining, and the mind-body problem. Advances 1 (2): 7–40Google Scholar
  14. Bergland R (1985) The fabric of mind. Viking Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Bernardis L, Tannenbaum G (1987) Failure to demonstrate disruption of ultradian growth hormone rhythm and insulin secretion by dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus lesions that cause reduced body weight, linear growth, and food intake. Exp Brain Res 66: 572–576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Black S, Humphrey J, Niven J (1963) Inhibition of Mantoux reaction by direct suggestion under hypnosis. Br Med J 5346: 1649–1652Google Scholar
  17. Blum G (1972) Hypnotic programming techniques in psychological experiments. In: Fromm E, Shor R (eds) Hypnosis: research developments and perspectives. Aldine, Chicago, IL, pp 359–385Google Scholar
  18. Bossom J, Natelson B, Levin B (1983) Ultradian rhythms in cognitive functions and their relationship to visceral processes. Physiol Behav 31: 119–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bowden D, Kripke D, Wyborney V (1978) Ultradian rhythms in waking behavior of rhesus monkeys. Physiol Behav 21: 929–933PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bower G (1981) Mood and memory. Am Psychol 36: 129–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bowers K (1977) Hypnosis: an informational approach. Ann NY Acad Sci 296: 222–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bowers K, Kelly P (1979) Stress, disease, psychotherapy, and hypnosis. J Abnorm Psychol 88: 490–505PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Brandenberger G, Simon C, Follenius M (1987) Night-day differences in the ultradian rhythmicity of plasma renin activity. Life Sci 40: 2325–2330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Breuer J, Freud S (1957) Studies on hysteria. In: Strachey J (ed and transl), Freud A (ed) The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud, vol I I. W. W. Norton, New York [First published 1895 ]Google Scholar
  25. Erickson M, Rossi E (1981) Experiencing hypnosis: therapeutic approaches to altered states. Irvington, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. Erickson M, Rossi E, Rossi S (1976) Hypnotic realities. Irvington, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Evans F (1972) Hypnosis and sleep: techniques for exploring cognitive activity during sleep. In: Fromm E, Shor R (eds) Hypnosis: research developments and perspectives. Aldine, Chicago, IL, pp 43–83Google Scholar
  28. Evans F, Orne M (1971) The disappearing hypnotist: the use of simulating subjects to evaluate how subjects perceive experimental procedures. Int J Clin Exp Hypn 19: 277–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Feher S, Berger L, Johnson J, Wilde J (1989) Increasing breast milk production for premature infants with a relaxation/imagery audiotape. Pediatrics 83: 57–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Feldman J (1986) Neurophysiology of breathing in mammals. In: Mountcastle V, Bloom F, Geiger S (eds) Handbook of physiology, section I, The nervous system, vol IV, Intrinsic regulatory systems of the brain. American Physiological Society, Bethesda, MD, pp 463–524Google Scholar
  31. Filicori M, Bolelli G, Franceschetti F, Lafisca S (1979) The ultradian pulsatile release of gonadotropins in normal female subjects. Acta Eur Fertil 10: 29–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Fischer R (1971a) Arousal-statebound recall of experience. Dis Nerv Syst 32: 373–382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Fischer R (1971b) The “flashback”: arousal-statebound recall of experience. J Psychedel Drugs 3: 31–39Google Scholar
  34. Fischer R (1971c) A cartography of ecstatic and meditative states. Science 174: 897–904PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Folkard S (1982) Circadian rhythms and human memory. In: Brown F, Graeber R (eds) Rhythmic aspects of behavior. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, pp 313–344Google Scholar
  36. Follenius M, Simon C, Bradenberger G, Lenzi P (1987) Ultradian plasma corticotropin and Cortisol rhythms: time-series analyses. J Endocrinol Invest 10: 261–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Ford J (1986) Chaos: solving the unsolvable, predicting the unpredictable! In: Barnsley M, Demko S (eds) Chaotic dynamics and fractals. Academic Press, New York, pp 1–52Google Scholar
  38. Ford J (1988) What is chaos, that we should be mindful if it? In: Capelin S, Davies P (eds) The New Physics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 248–372Google Scholar
  39. Freeman R, Baxby K (1982) Hypnotherapy for incontinence caused by the unstable detrusor. Br Med J [Clin Res] 284: 1831–1834Google Scholar
  40. Frid M, Singer G (1979) Synoptic analgesia in conditions of stress is partially reversed by naloxone. Psychopharmacology 63: 211–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Friedman S (1978) A psychophysiological model for the chemotherapy of psychosomatic illness. J Nerv Ment Dis 166: 110–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Friedman S, Fisher C (1967) On the presence of a rhythmic diurnal, oral instinctual drive cycle in man: a preliminary report. J Am Psychoanal Assoc 15: 317–343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Friedman S, Kantor I, Sobel S, Miller R (1978) On the treatment of neurodermatitis with a monomine oxidase inhibitor. J Nerv Ment Dis 166: 117–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Fromm E, Shor R (1972) Hypnosis: research developments and perspectives. Aldine, Chicago, ILGoogle Scholar
  45. Frumkin L, Ripley H, Cox G (1978) Changes in cerebral hemispheric lateralization with hypnosis. Biol Psychiatry 13: 741–750PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Funk F, Clarke J (1980) The nasal cycle observations over prolonged periods of time. Res Bull Himalayan Int Inst Winter, 1–4Google Scholar
  47. Gabel S (1988) The right hemisphere in imagery, hypnosis, REM sleep and dreaming. J Nerv Ment Dis 176: 323–331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Gerkema M, Daan S (1985) Ultradian rhythms in behavior: the case of the common vole (Microtus arvalis). In: Schulz H, Lavie P (eds) Ultradian rhythms in physiology and behavior. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 11–31Google Scholar
  49. Gilbert A (1989) Reciprocity versus rhythmicity in spontaneous alternations of nasal airflow. Chronobiol Int 6: 251–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Gill M, Brenman M (1959) Hypnosis and related states. International Universities Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  51. Glass L, Mackey M (1988) From clocks to chaos: the rhythms of life. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJGoogle Scholar
  52. Globus G (1966) Rapid eye movement cycle in real time. Arch Gen Psychophysiol 15: 654–669Google Scholar
  53. Goldberg B (1985) Hypnosis and the immune response. Int J Psychosom 32 (3): 34–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Goldstein A, Hilgard E (1975) Failure of the opiate antagonist naloxone to modify hypnotic analgesia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 72: 2041–2043PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Gopher D, Lavie P (1980) Short-term rhythms in the performance of a simple motor task. J Motor Behav 12: 207–221Google Scholar
  56. Gordon H, Frooman B, Lavie P (1982) Shift in cognitive asymmetries between wakings from REM and NREM sleep. Neuropsychologica 20: 99–103Google Scholar
  57. Gordon C, Lavie P (1986) The role of the sympathetic nervous system in the regulation of ultradian rhythms in urine excretions. Physiol Behav 38: 307–313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Gorton B (1957) The physiology of hypnosis. I. J Soc Psychosom Dent 4 (3): 86–103Google Scholar
  59. Gorton B (1958) The physiology of hypnosis: vasomotor activity in hypnosis. J Am Soc Psychosom Dent 5: 20–28Google Scholar
  60. Green R, Green M (1987) Relaxation increases salivary immunoglobulin A. Psychol Rep 61: 623–629PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Grevert P, Goldstein A (1985) Placebo analgesia, naloxone, and the role of endogenous opioids. In: White L, Tursky B, Schwartz G (eds) Placebo: theory, research, and mechanisms. Guilford Press, New York, pp 332–350Google Scholar
  62. Hall H (1982–1983) Hypnosis and the immune system: a review with implications for cancer and the psychology of healing. Am J Clin Hypn 25: 92–103.Google Scholar
  63. Hartmann E (1968) The 90-minute sleep-dream cycle. Arch Gen Psychiatry 18: 280–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Hasegawa M, Kern E (1978) Variations in nasal resistance in man: a rhinomanometric study of the nasal cycle in 50 human subjects. Rhinology 16: 19–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Hayes D, Cobb L (1979) Ultradian biorhythms in social interaction. In: Siegman A, Feldstein F (eds) On time and speech. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, pp 57–70Google Scholar
  66. Heetderks D (1927) Observations on the reaction of normal nasal mucosa membrane. Am J Med Sci 174: 231–244Google Scholar
  67. Hilgard E (1965) Hypnotic susceptibility. Harcourt, Brace & World, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  68. Hilgard E (1982) Hypnotic susceptibility and implications for measurement. Int J Clin Exp Hypn 30: 394–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Hilgard E, Hilgard J (1983) Hypnosis in the relief of pain. William Kaufmann, Los Altos, CAGoogle Scholar
  70. Hobson J (1988) The dreaming brain. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  71. Holley D, Winget C, DeRoshia C (1981) Effects of circadian rhythm phase alteration on psysiological and psychological variables: implications to pilot performance. NASA Tech Mem 81277Google Scholar
  72. Horne J, Whitehead M (1976) Ultradian and other rhythms in human respiration rate. Experientia 32: 1165–1167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Hunsaker W, Reiser B, Wolynetz M (1977) Vaginal temperature rhythms in sheep. Int J Chronobiol 4: 151–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Iranmanesh A, Lizarradle G, Johnson M, Veldhuis J (1989) Circadian ultradian, and episodic release of β-endorphin in men, and its temporal coupling with Cortisol. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 68: 1019–1025PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Jewett J, Kronauer R, Czeisler A (1991) Light-induced suppression of endogenous circadian amplitude in humans. Nature 350: 59–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Jouvet M (1962) Recherches sur les structures nerveuses et les mechanismes responsables des différentes phases du sommeil physiologique. Arch Ital Biol 100: 125–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Jouvet M (1973) Telencephalic and rhonbencephalic sleep in the cat. In: Webb W (ed) Sleep: an active process. Scott Foresman & Co., Glenview, IL, pp 12–32Google Scholar
  78. Kandel E (1989) Genes, nerve cells, and the remembrance of things past. J Neuropsychiatry 1: 103–125Google Scholar
  79. Kandel E, Schwartz G (1985) Principles of neural science, 2nd edn. Elsevier, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  80. Katz R (1980) The temporal structure of motivation. III. Identification and ecological significance of ultradian rhythms of intracranial reinforcement. Behav Neur Biol 30: 148–159Google Scholar
  81. Kayser R (1895) Die exacte Messung der Luftdurchgangigkeit der Nasa. Arch Laryngol Rhinol 3: 101–120Google Scholar
  82. Keuning J (1968) On the nasal cycle. Int Rhinol 6: 99–136Google Scholar
  83. Kiecolt-Glaser J, Glaser R (1986) Psychological influences on immunity. Psychosomatics 27: 621–624PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Kirschbaum C, Hellhammer D (1989) Salivary Cortisol in psychobiological research: an overview. Biol Pharmacopsychol 22: 150–169Google Scholar
  85. Klein R, Armitage R (1979) Rhythms in human performance: 1/2 hour oscillations in cognitive style. Science 204: 1326–1328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Klein R, Pilon D, Prosser S, Shannahoff-Khalsa D (1986) Nasal airflow asymmetries and human performance. Biol Psychol 23: 127–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Kleitman N (1963) Sleep and wakefulness as alternating phases in the cycle of existence. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, ILGoogle Scholar
  88. Kleitman N (1969) Basic rest-activity cycle in relation to sleep and wakefulness. In: Kales A (ed) Sleep: physiology and pathology. Lippincott, Philadelphia, PA, pp 33–38Google Scholar
  89. Kleitman N (1970) Implications of the rest-activity cycle: implications for organizing activity. In: Hartmann E (ed) Sleep and dreaming. Little, Brown, Boston, pp 13–14Google Scholar
  90. Kleitman N (1982) Basic rest-activity cycle — 22 years later. Sleep 5: 311–315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Klevecz R, Braly P (1987) Orcadian and ultradian rhythms of proliferation in human ovarian cancer. Chronobiol Int 4: 513–523PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Knobil E, Hotchkiss J (1985) The circhoral gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse generator of the hypothalamus and its physiological significance. In: Schulz H, Lavie P (eds) Ultradian rhythms in physiology and behavior. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 32–40Google Scholar
  93. Kosunen K, Kuoppasalmi K, N’averi H, Rehunen S, N’arv’anen S, Adlercreutz H (1977) Plasma renin activity, angiotensin II, and aldosterone during the hypnotic suggestion of running. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 37: 99–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Kripke D (1972) An ultradian biological rhythm associated with perceptual deprivation and REM sleep. Psychosom Med 34: 221–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Kripke D (1984) Critical interval hypothesis for depression. Chronobiol Int 1: 73–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Kripke D, Sonnenschein D (1978) A biologic rhythm in waking fantasy. In: Pope K, Stringer J (eds) The stream of consciousness. Plenum Press, New York, pp 321–332Google Scholar
  97. Krynicki V (1975) Time trends and periodic cycles in REM sleep eye movements. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 39: 507–513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Kupfer D, Monk T, Barchas J (1988) Biological rhythms and mental disorders. Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  99. Lavie P (1976) Ultradian rhythms in the perception of two apparent motions. Chronobiologia 3: 214–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Lavie P (1977) Nonstationarity in human perceptual ultradian rhythms. Chronobiologia, 4: 38–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Lavie P (1979) Ultradian rhythms in alertness - a pupillometric study. Biol Psychol 9: 49–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Lavie P, Kripke D (1977) Ultradian rhythms in urine flow in waking humans. Nature 269: 142–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Lavie P, Kripke D (1981) Ultradian circa\hour rhythms: a multioscillatory system. Life Sci 29: 2445–2450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Levin B, Goldstein A, Natelson B (1978) Ultradian rhythm of plasma noradrenaline in rhesus monkeys. Nature 272: 164–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Levitt E, den Breeijen A, Persky H (1960) The induction of clinical anxiety by means of a standardized hypnotic technique. Am J Clin Hypn 2: 206–214Google Scholar
  106. Lewis B, Kripke D, Bowden D (1977) Ultradian rhythms in hand-mouth behavior of the rhesus monkey. Physiol Behav 18: 283–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Lippincott B (1990) Testing predictions of the ultradian theory of therapeutic hypnosis. Paper presented at the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of The American Society of Clinical Hypnosis, 24–28 March 1990, Orlando, FLGoogle Scholar
  108. Lippincott B (1991) Owls and larks in hypnosis: an experimental validation of the ultradian theory of hypnotic susceptibility. Paper presented at the 33rd Annual Scientific Meeting of The American Society of Clinical Hypnosis, 14–18 April 1991, St Louis, MIGoogle Scholar
  109. Lippincott B (1992) Owls and larks in hypnosis: individual differences in hypnotic susceptibility relating to biological rhythms. Am J Clin Hypn 34: 185–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Lissoni P, Marelli O, Mauri R et al. (1986) Ultradian chronomodulation by melatonin of a placebo effect upon human killer cell activity. Chronobiologia 13: 339–343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Lloyd D, Edwards SW (1984) Epigenetic oscillators during the cell cycles of lower eucaryotes are coupled to a clock: life’s slow dance to the music of time. In: Edmunds L (ed) Cell cycle clocks. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 27–46Google Scholar
  112. Lloyd D, Edwards SW (1987) Temperature-compensated ultradian rhythms in lower eukaryotes: timers for cell cycles and circadian events? In: Pauly J, Scheving L (eds) Advances in chronobiology, pt A. Alan R. Liss, New York, pp 131–151Google Scholar
  113. Lovett J (1976) Two biological rhythms of perception distinguishing between intact and relatively damaged brain function in man. Int J Chronobiol 4: 39–49Google Scholar
  114. Lovett J (1980) Sinus tachycardia and abnormal cardiac rate variation in schizophrenia. Neuropsychobiology 6: 305–312Google Scholar
  115. Lovett J, Podnieks I (1975) Comparison between some biological clocks regulating sensory and psychomotor aspects of perception in man. Neuropsychobiology 1: 261–266Google Scholar
  116. Lovett J, Payne W, Podnieks I (1978) An ultradian rhythm of reaction time measurements in man. Neuropsychobiology 4: 93–98Google Scholar
  117. Luce G (1970) Biological rhythms in psychiatry and medicine. US Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  118. Lydic R (1987) State-dependent aspects of regulatory physiology. FASEB J 1: 6–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Mason A, Black S (1958) Allergic skin responses abolished under treatment of asthma and hayfever by hypnosis. Lancet 1: 877–880PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Migaly P (1987) Integrated approach of hypnotic theories and hallucinatory states. Paper presented at Fourth European Congress of Hypnosis in Psychotherapy and Psychosomatic Medicine, 11–17 July, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  121. Millard W, Reppert S, Sagar S, Martin J (1981) Light-dark entrainment of the growth hormone ultradian rhythm in the rat is mediated by the arcuate nucleus. Endocrinology 108: 2394–2396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Moore-Ede M, Czeisler C, Richardson G (1983) Orcadian timekeeping in health and disease. Part I: Basic properties of circadian pacemakers. N Engl J Med 309: 469–476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Murray A, Kirschner M (1989) Cyclin synthesis drives the early embryonic cell cycle. Nature 339: 275–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Murray A, Kirschner M (1991) What controls the cell cycle? Sci Am 266: 56–63Google Scholar
  125. Murray A, Solomon M, Kirschner M (1989) The role of cyclin synthesis and degradation in the control of maturation promoting factor activity. Nature 339: 280–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Naish P (ed) (1986) What is hypnosis? Open University Press, Milton Keynes, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  127. Naitoh P (1982) Chronobiological approach for optimizing human performance. In: Brown F, Graeber R (eds) Rhythmic aspects of behavior. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, pp 41–103Google Scholar
  128. Olness K, Conroy M (1985) A pilot study of voluntary control of transcutaneous PO by children: a brief communication. Int J Clin Exp Hypn 33 (15): l–5Google Scholar
  129. Olness K, Wain H, Ng L (1980) Pilot study of blood endorphin levels in children using self-hypnosis to control pain. Dev Behav Pediatr 1: 187–188Google Scholar
  130. Olness K, Culbert T, Uden D (1989) Self-regulation of salivary immunoglubulin A by children. Pediatrics 83: 66–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Orne M (1972) On the simulating subject as a quasi-control group in hypnosis research: what, why, and how. In: Fromm E, Shor R (eds) Hypnosis: research developments and perspectives. Aldine, Chicago, IL, pp 399–443Google Scholar
  132. Orne M, Evans F (1966) Inadvertent termination of hypnosis with hypnotized and simulating subjects. Int J Clin Exp Hypn 14: 61–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Orr W, Hoffman H, Hegge F (1974) Ultradian rhythms in extended performance. Aerosp Med 45: 995–1000PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Osowiec D (1991) Ultradian rhythms in self-actualization, anxiety, and stress-related somatic symptoms. PhD dissertation, California Institute of Integral StudiesGoogle Scholar
  135. Perry C, Laurence J, D’eon J, Tallant B (1988) Hypnotic age regression techniques in the elicitation of memories: applied uses and abuses. In: Pettinati H (ed) Hypnosis and memory. Guilford Press, New York, pp 128–154Google Scholar
  136. Pert C, Ruff M, Weber R, Herkenham M (1985) Neuropeptides and their receptors: a psychosomatic network. J Immunol 135: 820s–826sPubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Pert C, Ruff M, Spencer D, Rossi E (1989) Self-reflective molecular psychology. Psychol Perspect 20: 213–221Google Scholar
  138. Pettinati H (1988) Hypnosis and memory. Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  139. Poirel C (1982) Circadian rhythms in behavior and experimental psychopathology. In: Brown F, Graeber R (eds) Rhythmic aspects of behavior. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, pp 363–398Google Scholar
  140. Putnam F (1985) Dissociation as a response to extreme trauma. In: Kluft R (ed) Childhood antecedents of multiple personality. American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  141. Rama S, Ballentine R, Ajaya S (1976) Yoga and psychotherapy: the evolution of consciousness. Himalayan International Institute of Yoga Science and Philosophy, Honesdale, PAGoogle Scholar
  142. Rapp P (1987) Why are so many biological systems periodic? Prog Neurobiol 29: 261–273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Rasmussen D (1986) Physiological interactions of the basic rest-activity cycle of the brain: pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion as a model. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2: 389–405Google Scholar
  144. Rasmussen D, Malven P (1981) Relationship between rhythmic motor activity and plasma luteinizing hormone in ovariectomized sheep. Neuroendocrinology 32: 364–369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Reid A, Curtsinger G (1968) Physiological changes associated with hypnosis: the affect of hypnosis on temperature. Int J Clin Exp Hypn 16: 111–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Reinberg A, Smolensky M (1983) Biological rhythms and medicine. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  147. Ritterman M (1983) Using hypnosis in family therapy. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CAGoogle Scholar
  148. Romano S, Gizdulich P (1980) Suggestion of ultradian rhythm in peripheral blood flow. Chronobiology 7: 259–261Google Scholar
  149. Rosbash M, Hall J (1989) The molecular biology of circadian rhythms. Neuron 3: 387–397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Rose K (1988) The body in time. Wiley & Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  151. Rossi E (ed) (1980) The collected papers of Milton H. Erickson on hypnosis: vol I, The nature of hypnosis and suggestion; vol II, Hypnotic alteration of sensory, perceptual, and psychophysical processes; vol III, Hypnotic investigation of psychodynamic processes; vol IV, Innovative hypnotherapy. Irvington, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  152. Rossi E (1982) Hypnosis and ultradian cycles: a new state(s) theory of hypnosis? Am J Clin Hypn 25: 21–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Rossi E (1986a) The psychobiology of mind-body healing. Norton, New York (German edn: Die Psychobioloqie der Seele-Körper-Heilung. 1991, Synthesis-Verlag, Essen )Google Scholar
  154. Rossi E (1986b) Altered states of consciousness in everyday life: the ultradian rhythms. In: Wolman B, Ullman M (eds) Handbook of altered states of consciousness. Van Nostrand, New York, pp 97–132Google Scholar
  155. Rossi E (1986c) Hypnosis and ultradian rhythms. In: Zilbergeld B, Edelstien M, Araoz D (eds) Hypnosis: questions and answers. W. W. Norton, New York, pp 17–21Google Scholar
  156. Rossi E (1986d) The indirect trance assessment scale (ITAS): a preliminary outline and learning tool. In: Yapko M (ed) Hypnotic and strategic interventions: principles and practice. Irvington, New York, pp 1–29Google Scholar
  157. Rossi E (1987) From mind to molecule: a state-dependent memory, learning, and behavior theory of mind-body healing. Advances 4: 46–60Google Scholar
  158. Rossi E (1989) Mind-body healing, not suggestion, is the essence of hypnosis. Am J Clin Hypn 32: 14–15Google Scholar
  159. Rossi E (1990a) A clinical-experimental assessment of the ultradian theory of therapeutic suggestion. Paper presented at the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting and Workshops on Clinical Hypnosis, 24–28 March 1990, Orlando, FLGoogle Scholar
  160. Rossi E (1990b) The new yoga of the west: natural rhythms of mind-body healing. Psychol Perspect 22: 146–161Google Scholar
  161. Rossi E (1990c) The eternal quest: hidden rhythms of stress and healing in everyday life. Psychol Perspect 22: 6–23Google Scholar
  162. Rossi E (1990d) Mind-molecular communication: can we really talk to our genes? Hypnos 17: 3–14Google Scholar
  163. Rossi E (1990e) From mind to molecule: more than a metaphor. In: Zeig J, Gilligan S (eds) Brief therapy: myths, methods and metaphors. Brunner/Mazel, New York, pp 445–472Google Scholar
  164. Rossi E (1991a) The wave nature of consciousness. Psychol Perspect 24: 1–10Google Scholar
  165. Rossi E (1991b) The twenty minute break: the ultradian healing response. Jeremy Tarcher, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  166. Rossi E (1992a) Periodicity in self-hypnosis and the ultradian healing response: a pilot study. Hypnos 19: 4–13Google Scholar
  167. Rossi E (1992b) A clinical-experimental exploration of Erickson’s naturalistic approach: ultradian time and trance phenomena. Hypnos (in press)Google Scholar
  168. Rossi E, Cheek D (1988) Mind-body therapy: ideodynamic healing in hypnosis. W. W. Norton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  169. Rossi E, Nimmons D (1991) The 20-minute break: using the new science of ultradian rhythms. Tarcher, Los Angeles, CAGoogle Scholar
  170. Rossi E, Ryan M (eds) (1986) Mind-body communication in hypnosis, vol. 3, The seminars, workshops, and lectures of Milton H. Erickson. Irvington, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  171. Rossi E, Smith M (1990) The eternal quest: hidden rhythms of mind-body healing in everyday life. Psychol Perspect 22: 6–23Google Scholar
  172. Roth J, Le Roith D, Collier E et al. (1985) Evolutionary origins of neuropeptides, hormones, and receptors: possible applications to immunology. J Immunol 135: 816s–819sPubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Sabourin M (1982) Hypnosis and brain function: EEG correlates of state-trait differences. Res Commun Psychol Psychiatr Behav 7: 149–168Google Scholar
  174. Sachar E, Fishman J, Mason J (1965) Influence of the hypnotic trance on plasma 17-hydroxycorticosteroid concentration. Psychosomat Med 27: 330–341Google Scholar
  175. Sanders S (1991) Self-hypnosis and ultradian states: are they related? Paper presented at the 33rd Annual Scientific Meeting of The American Society of Clinical Hypnosis, 14–18 April, St Louis, MOGoogle Scholar
  176. Sarbin T (1976) Hypnosis as role enactment: the model of Theodore R. Sarbin. In: Sheehan P, Perry C (eds) Methodologies of hypnosis. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, pp 123–152Google Scholar
  177. Sarbin T, Slagle R (1972) Hypnosis and psychophysiological outcomes. In: Fromm E, Shor R (eds) Hypnosis: research developments and perspectives. Aldine, Chicago, IL, pp 185–214Google Scholar
  178. Schmitt F (1984) Molecular regulators of brain function: a new view. Neuroscience 13: 991–1001PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Schmitt F (1986) Chemical information processing in the brain: prospect from retrospect. In: Iversen L, Goodman E (eds) Fast and slow signalling in the nervous system. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 239–243Google Scholar
  180. Schulz H, Lavie P (1985) Ultradian rhythms in physiology and behavior. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  181. Shaffer J, Schmidt C, Zlotowitz H et al. (1978) Biorhythms and highway crashes: are they related? Arch Gen Psychiatry 35: 41–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Sheehan P, McConkey K (1982) Hypnosis and experience: the exploration of phenomena and process. Erlbaum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  183. Sheehan P, Perry C (1976) Methodologies of hypnosis. Lawence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJGoogle Scholar
  184. Shiotsuka R, Jovonovich J, Jovonovich J (1974) In vitro data on drug sensitivity: circadian and ultradian corticosterone rhythms in adrenal organ cultures. In: Schoff J et al. (eds) Chronobiological aspects of endocrinology. Schattauer, Stuttgart, pp 225–267Google Scholar
  185. Simon C, Brandenberger G, Follenius M (1987) Ultradian oscillations of plasma glucose, insulin, and c-peptide in man during continuous enteral nutrition. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 64: 669–674PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Simons R, Ervin F, Prince R (1988) The psychobiology of trance. Transcult Psychiatr Res Rev 25: 249–284Google Scholar
  187. Smolensky M, Reinberg A (eds) (1977) Chronobiology in allergy and immunology. C. C. Thomas, Springfield, ILGoogle Scholar
  188. Sommer C (1990) The ultradian rhythm and the common everyday trance. Paper presented at the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of The American Society of Clinical Hypnosis, 24–28 March, Orlando, FLGoogle Scholar
  189. Soubeyrand L (1964) Action des medicaments vasomoteurs sur le cycle nasal et la fonction ciliare. Rev Laryngol Oto-Rhonol 85: 43–113Google Scholar
  190. Spanos N (1986) Hypnotic behavior: a social-psychology interpretation of amnesia, analgesia, and “trance logic”. Behav Brain Sci 9: 449–503Google Scholar
  191. Spanos N, Cobb P, Gorassini D (1985) Failing to resist hypnotic test suggestions: a strategy for self-presenting as deeply hypnotized. Psychiatry 48: 282–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Spiegel D, Detrick D, Frischholz E (1982) Hypnotizability and psychopathology. Am J Psychiatr 139: 431–437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Spiegel D, Hunt T, Dondershine H (1988) Dissociation and hypnotizability in posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Psychiatry 145: 301–305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Spiegel D, Bloom J, Kraemer H, Gottheil E (1989) Effect of psychosocial treatment on survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer. Lancet October 14: 888–891Google Scholar
  195. Spiegel H, Spiegel D (1978) Trance and treatment: clinical uses of hypnosis. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  196. Steiner R, Peterson A, Yu J, Conner H, Gilbert M, Penning B, Brenner W (1980) Ultradian luteinizing hormone and testosterone rhythms in the adult male monkey, Macaca fasicularis. Endocrinology 107: 1489–1493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Stephenson J (1978) Reversal of hypnosis-induced analgesia by naloxone. Lancet 2: 991–992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Stoksted P (1953) Rhinometric measurements for determination of the nasal cycle. Acta Otolaryngol 109 [Suppl]: 159–175Google Scholar
  199. Stroebel C (1969) Biologic rhythm correlates of disturbed behavior and Rhesus monkey. In: Rohles F (ed) Circadian rhythms in non-human primates. Karger, New York, pp 19–105Google Scholar
  200. Tart C (1983) States of consciousness. Psychological Processes, El Cerrito, CAGoogle Scholar
  201. Tepas D (1982) Work/sleep time schedules and performance. In: Webb W (ed) Biological rhythms, sleep, and performance. John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp 175–204Google Scholar
  202. Timney B, Barber T (1969) Hypnotic induction and oral temperature. Int J Clin Exp Hypn 17: 121–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Tinterow M (1970) Foundations of hypnosis. C. C. Thomas, Springfield, ILGoogle Scholar
  204. Todorov I (1990) How cells maintain stability. Sci Am 263: 66–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Ullner R (1974) On the development of ultradian rhythms: the rapid eye movement activity in premature children. In: Scheving LE, Halberg F, Pauly JE (eds) Chronobiology. Igaku Shoin Ltd, Tokyo, pp 478–481Google Scholar
  206. Van Cauter E, Desir D, Decoster C, Fery F, Balasse E (1989) Nocturnal decrease in glucose tolerance during constant glucose infusion. J Clin Endocr Metab 69: 604–611PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Veldhuis J, Johnson M (1988) Operating characteristics of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis in men: circadian, ultradian, and pulsatile release of prolactin and its temporal coupling with luteinizing hormone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 67: 116–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Veldhuis J, King J, Urban R et al. (1987) Operating characteristics of the male hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis: pulsatile release of testosterone and follicle-stimulating hormone and their temporal coupling with luteinizing hormone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 65: 929–941PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Wagstaff G (1986) Hypnosis as compliance and belief: a socio-cognitive view. In: Naish P (ed) What is hypnosis? Current theories and research. Open University Press, Milton Keynes Philadelphia, pp 57–84Google Scholar
  210. Wehr T (1982) Circadian rhythm disturbances in depression and mania. In: Brown F, Graeber R (eds) Rhythmic aspects of behavior. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, pp 46–74Google Scholar
  211. Wehr T, Goodwin F (1981) Biological rhythms and psychiatry. Am Handbook Psychiatry 7: 46–74Google Scholar
  212. Wehr T, Goodwin F (eds) (1983) Rhythms in psychiatry. Boxwood Press, Pacific Grove, CAGoogle Scholar
  213. Weitzenhoffer A (1971) Ocular changes associated with passive hypnotic behavior. Am J Clin Hypn 14: 102–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Werntz D (1981) Cerebral hemispheric activity and autonomic nervous function. Doctoral thesis, University of California, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  215. Werntz D, Bickford R, Bloom F, Shannahoff-Khalsa D (1982a) Alternating cerebral hemispheric activity and lateralization of autonomic nervous function. Human Neurobiol 2: 225–229Google Scholar
  216. Werntz D, Bickford R, Bloom F, Shannahoff-Khalsa D (1982b) Selective hemispheric stimulation by unilateral forced nostril breathing. Human Neurobiol 6: 165–171Google Scholar
  217. Wester W, Smith A (eds) (1984) Clinical hypnosis. J. B. Lippincott, Philadelphia, PAGoogle Scholar
  218. Wever R (1989) Light effects on human circadian rhythms: a review of recent Andechs experiments. J Biol Rhythms 4: 161–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Wickramasekera I (1987) Risk factors leading to chronic stress-related symptoms. Advances 4: 9–35Google Scholar
  220. Williams R, Kraus L, Inbar M, Dubey D, Yunis E, Halberg F (1981) Circadian bioperiodicity of natural killer cell activity in human blood (individually assessed). In: Walker C, Winget C, Soliman K (eds) Chronopharmacology and Chronotherapeutics, pp 269–273Google Scholar
  221. Wilson S, Barber T (1978) The creative imagination scale as a measure of hypnotic responsiveness: applications to experimental and clinical hypnosis. Am J Clin Hypn 20: 235–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Winfree A (1980) The geometry of biological time. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  223. Winfree A (1987) The timing of biological clocks. Scientific American Library, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  224. Wolcott J, McMeekin R, Burgin R et al. (1977) Correlation of occurrences of aircraft accidents with biorhythmic criticality and cycle phase in U.S. Air Force, U.S. Army, and civil aviation pilots. Aviat Space Environ Med 48: 976–983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Young M (1988) The metronomic society: natural rhythms and human timetables. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  226. Zimbardo P, Maslach C, Marshall G (1972) Hypnosis and the psychology of cognitive and behavioral control. In: Fromm E, Shor R (eds) (1972) Hypnosis: research developments and perspectives. Aldine, Chicago, IL, pp 539–571Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. L. Rossi
  • B. M. Lippincott

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations