Advertisement

Practical Issues in Prescribing Peritoneal Dialysis

  • Zbylut J. Twardowski

Abstract

Intermittent peritoneal dialysis (IPD) regimen for chronic renal failure was introduced in the early 1960s (1) and gained popularity after two crucial improvements made by Tenckhoff: a safe and permanent chronic peritoneal access (2) and an automated sterilization and delivery system of dialysis solution that allowed therapy at home (3). The method, however, could not compete successfully with hemodialysis because of low efficiency, resulting in inadequate dialysis and a shorter technique survival than on other forms of renal replacement therapy. All efforts to increase the efficiency of dialysis to shorten the time of dialysis proved unsuccessful and peritoneal dialysis for chronic renal failure began to decline in the early 1970s.

Keywords

Peritoneal Dialysis Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Dialysis Solution Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Patient Adequate Dialysis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Boen ST, Mulinali AS, Dillard DH, Scribner BH: Periodic peritoneal dialysis in the management of chronic uremia. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs, 8: 256–262, 1962.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tenckhoff H, Schechter H: A bacteriologically safe peritoneal access device. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs, 14: 181–186, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tenckhoff H, Shilipetar G, Van Paasschen WH, Swanson E: A home peritoneal dialysate delivery system. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs, 15: 103–107, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Popovich RP, Moncrief JW, Decherd JF, Bomar JB, Pyle WK: The definition of a novel portable/wearable equilibrium dialysis technique. Am Soc Artif Intern Organs, 5: 64A, 1976 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gotch FA, Sargent JA, Keen M, Prowitt M, Grady M: Solute kinetics in intermittent dialysis therapy. Proc Annu Contractor’s Conf Artif Kidney-Chronic Uremia Prog (NIAMDD), 9: 98, 1976.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Popovich RP, Moncrief JW, Nolph KD, Ghods AJ, Twardowski ZJ, Pyle WK: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Ann Intern Med, 88: 449–456, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Oreopoulos DG, Robson M, Izatt S, Clayton S, de Veber CA: A simple and safe technique for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs, 24: 484–489, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Smeby LC, Wideroe TE, Jorstad S: Individual differences in water transport during continuous peritoneal dialysis. ASAIO, J 4: 17–27, 1981.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Slingeneyer A, Canaud B, Mion C: Permanent loss of ultrafiltration capacity of the peritoneum in long-term peritoneal dialysis: An epidemiological study. Nephron, 33: 133–138, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Smeby LC, Wideroe TE, Mjaaland S, Dahl K: Changes in ultrafiltration and solute transport during CAPD. In: “Frontiers in Peritoneal Dialysis” (Eds JF Maher, JF Winchester), Field Rich and Associates Inc., New York, 1986, pp 68–74.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Spencer PC, Farrell PC: Solute and water kinetics in CAPD. In “Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis” (Ed R Gokal), Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1986, pp 38–55.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Verger C, Larpent L, Dumontet M: Prognostic value of peritoneal equilibration curves in CAPD patients. In: “Frontiers in Peritoneal Dialysis” (Ed JF Maher, JF Winchester), Field Rich and Associates Inc, New York, 1986, pp 88–93.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ahmad S, Gallagher N, Shen FH: Intermittent peritoneal dialysis: Status reassessed. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs, 25: 86–88, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ghantous WN, Salkin MS, Adelson BN, Ghantous S, McGinnis K, Valenziano A, Cronin M: Limitations of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in the treatment of ESRD patients. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs, 25: 100–103, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schmidt RW, Blumenkrantz MJ: IPD, CAPD, CCPD, CRPD — Peritoneal dialysis: Past, present and future. Int J Artif Organs, 4: 124–129, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Twardowski ZJ: Individualized dialysis for CAPD patients. Uremia Invest, 8: 35–43, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Scribner BH: A current perspective on the role of intermittent vs continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Proc NE Regional Meeting of Renal Physicians Assoc, 3: 76–81, 1979.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Diaz-Buxo JA, Walker PJ, Farmer CD, Chandler JP, Holt KR: Continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis — a preliminary report. Artif Organs, 5: 157–161, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Diaz-Buxo JA, Walker PJ, Farmer DF, Chandler JT, Holt KL, Cox P: Continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs, 27: 51–53, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Price CG, Suki WN: Newer modifications of peritoneal dialysis: options in the treatment of patients with renal failure. Am J Nephrol, 1: 97–104, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Twardowski ZJ, Nolph KD, Khanna R, Gluck Z, Prowant BF, Ryan LP: Daily clearances with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and nightly peritoneal dialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs, 32: 575–580, 1986.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Twardowski ZJ: Peritoneal dialysis glossary. II. Perit Dial Int, 8: 15–17, 1988.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Twardowski ZJ: Peritoneal dialysis glossary. III. Perit Dial Int, 10: 173–175, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pendras JP, Erickson RV: Hemodialysis: A successful therapy for chronic uremia. Ann Intern Med, 64: 293–311, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    De Palma JR, Abukurah A, Rubini ME: “Adequacy” of haemodialysis. Proc Europ Dial Transplant Assoc, 9: 265–270, 1972.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Twardowski Z: The adequacy of haemodialysis in treatment of chronic renal failure. Acta Med Pol, 15: 227–243, 1974.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Parker TF, Laird NM, Lowrie EG: Comparison of the study groups in the National Cooperative Dialysis Study and a description of morbidity, mortality, and patient withdrawal. Kidney Int, 23(Suppl 13): S–42–S–49, 1983.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gotch F, Sargent JA: A mechanistic analysis of the National Cooperative dialysis study (NCDS) Kidney Int, 28: 526–534, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Held PJ, Levin NW, Bovbierg RR, Pauly MV, Diamond LH: Mortality and duration of hemodialysis treatment. JAMA, 265: 871–875, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Charra B, Calemard E, Chazot C, Terrat JC, Vanel T, Ruffet M, Laurent G: Survival as an index of adequacy of dialysis. J Amer Soc Nephrol, 1: 351, 1991 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shen F-H, Hsu K-T: Lower mortality and morbidity associated with higher Kt/V in hemodialysis patients. J Amer Soc Nephrol 1: 377, 1991 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ahmad S, Cole JJ: Lower morbidity associated with higher Kt/V in stable hemodialysis patients. J Amer Soc Nephrol 1: 346, 1991 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Twardowski ZJ, Nolph KD: Opinion: Peritoneal dialysis — how much is enough? Seminars in Dialysis 1: 75–76, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Twardowski ZJ: PET — a simpler approach for determining prescriptions for adequate dialysis therapy. In: “Advances in Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis.” Proceedings of the Tenth Annual CAPD Conference, Dallas, Texas, February 1990. (Eds R Khanna, KD Nolph, BF Prowant, ZJ Twardowski, DG Oreopoulos) Peritoneal Dialysis Bulletin, Inc., Toronto, 1990, pp 186–191.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Odel HM, Ferris DO, Power MH: Peritoneal lavage as an effective means of extrarenal excretion. A clinical appraisal. Am J Med, 9: 63–77, 1950.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Maxwell MH, Rockney RE, Kleeman CR, Twiss MR: Peritoneal dialysis. I. Technique and applications. JAMA, 170: 917–924, 1959.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Boen ST: Kinetics of peritoneal dialysis. Medicine (Baltimore), 40: 243–287, 1961.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Frank HA, Seligman AM, Fine J: Further experiences with peritoneal irrigation for acute renal failure. Ann Surg, 128: 561–608, 1948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Miller JH, Gipstein R, Margules R, Swartz M, Rubini ME: Automated peritoneal dialysis: Analysis of several methods of peritoneal dialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs, 12: 98–105, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Pirpasopoulos M, Lindsay RM, Rahman M, Kennedy AC: A cost-effectiveness study of dwell times in peritoneal dialysis. Lancet, 2: 1135–1136, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kablitz C, Stephen RL, Duffy DP, Jacobsen SC, Zelman A, Kolff WJ: Technological augmentation of peritoneal urea clearance: past, present, and future. Dial Transpl, 9: 741–778, 1980.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Randerson DH: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis — A critical appraisal. PhD Thesis, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, 1980.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Farrell PC, Randerson DH: Mass transfer kinetics in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. In: “Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis” (Ed M Legrain), Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, 1980, pp 34–41.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pyle WK: Mass Transfer in Peritoneal Dialysis. PhD Thesis, University of Texas, Austin, 1981.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Garred LJ, Canaud B, Farrell PC: A simple kinetic model for assessing peritoneal mass transfer in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Am Soc Artif Intern Organs, J 6: 131–137, 1983.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Popovich RP, Moncrief JW, Pyle WK, Transport kinetics. In: “Peritoneal Dialysis.” (Ed KD Nolph), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Third Edition, 1989, pp 96–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hiatt MP, Pyle WK, Moncrief JW, Popovich RP: A comparison of the relative efficacy of CAPD and hemodialysis in the control of solute concentration. Artificial Organs, 4: 37–43, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mactier RA, Twardowski ZJ: Influence of dwell time, osmolality, and volume of exchanges on solute mass transfer and ultrafiltration in peritoneal dialysis. Seminar in Dialysis, 1: 40–49, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mactier RA, Khanna R, Twardowski ZJ, Nolph KD: Role of peritoneal cavity lymphatic absorption in peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int, 32: 165–172, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mactier RA, Khanna R, Twardowski ZJ, Moore H, Nolph KD: Contribution of lymphatic absorption to loss of ultrafiltration and solute clearances in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. J Clin Invest, 80: 1311–1316, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Twardowski ZJ, Nolph KD, Khanna R, Prowant BF, Ryan LP, Moore HL, Nielsen MP: Peritoneal equilibration test. Perit Dial Bull, 7: 138–147, 1987.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Twardowski ZJ, Khanna R, Nolph KD: Peritoneal dialysis modifications to avoid CAPD dropouts. In: “Advances in Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis.” Proceedings of the Seventh Annual CAPD Conference, Kansas City, Missouri, February 1987. (Eds R. Khanna, KD Nolph, BF Prowant, ZJ Twardowski, DG Oreopoulos) Perit Dial Bull Inc, Toronto, 1987, pp 171–178.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Twardowski ZJ: Clinical value of standardized equilibration tests in CAPD patients. Blood Purif, 7: 95–108, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Twardowski ZJ: The fast peritoneal equilibration test. Seminars in Dialysis, 3: 141–142, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Twardowski ZJ: Nightly peritoneal dialysis (why? who? how? and when?). ASAIO Transactions, 36: 8–16, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Du Bois D, Du Bois EF: A formula to estimate the approximate surface area if height and weight be known. Arch Int Med, 17: 863–871, 1916.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hume R, Wyers E: Relationship between total body water and surface area in normal and obese subjects. J Clin Pathol, 24: 234–238, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Watson PE, Watson ID, Batt RD: Total body water volumes for adult males and females estimated from simple anthropometric measurements. Am J Clin Nutr, 33: 27–39, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Blake PG, Sombolos K, Abraham G, Weissgarten J, Pemberton R, Chu GL, Oreopoulos DG: Lack of correlation between urea kinetic indices and clinical outcomes in CAPD patients. Kidney Int, 39: 700–706, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lysaght MJ, Pollock CA, Hallet MD, Ibels LS, Farrel PC: The relevance of urea kinetic modeling in CAPD. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs, 35: 784–790, 1989.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Keshaviah PR, Nolph KD, Van Stone JC: The peak concentration hypothesis: A urea kinetic approach to comparing the adequacy of CAPD and hemodialysis. Perit Dial Int, 9: 257–260, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Keshaviah PR, Nolph KD, Prowant B, Moore H, Ponferrada L, Van Stone J, Twardowski ZJ, Khanna R: Defining adequacy of CAPD with urea kinetics. In: “Advances in Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis” Proceedings of the Tenth Annual CAPD Conference, Dallas, Texas, February 1990. (Eds R Khanna, KD Nolph, BF Prowant, ZJ Twardowski, DG Oreopoulos) Peritoneal Dialysis Bulletin, Inc., Toronto, 1990, pp 173–177.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Teehan BP, Schleifer CR, Brown JM, Sigler MH, Raimondo J: Urea kinetic analysis and clinical outcome on CAPD. A five year longitudinal study. In: “Advances in Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis.” Proceedings of the Tenth Annual CAPD Conference, Dallas, Texas, February 1990. (Eds R Khanna, KD Nolph, BF Prowant, ZJ Twardowski, DG Oreopoulos) Peritoneal Dialysis Bulletin, Inc., Toronto, 1990, pp 181–185.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Gotch FA: Application of urea kinetic modeling to adequacy of CAPD therapy. In: “Advances in Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis.” Proceedings of the Tenth Annual CAPD Conference, Dallas, Texas, February 1990. (Eds R Khanna, KD Nolph, BF Prowant, ZJ Twardowski, DG Oreopoulos) Peritoneal Dialysis Bulletin, Inc., Toronto, 1990, pp 178–180.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Boen ST, Haagsma-Schouten WAG, Birnie RJ: Long-term peritoneal dialysis and a peritoneal dialysis-index. Dial Transplant, 7: 377–380, 1978.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Twardowski ZJ, Nolph KD, Khanna R, Gluck Z, Prowant BF, Ryan LP: Daily clearances with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and nightly peritoneal dialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs, 32: 575–580, 1986.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Twardowski ZJ, Nolph KD, Khanna R, Prowant BF, Frock JT, Dobbie J, Kenley RS, Serkes KD, Witsoe DA, Garber JW: Tidal peritoneal dialysis. In: “Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis”-Proceedings of the IVth Congress of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis, Venice, Italy, June 29–July 2, 1987, (Eds MM Avram, C Giordano) Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York, 1990, pp 145–149.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Twardowski ZJ, Prowant BF, Nolph KD, Khanna R, Schmidt LM, Satalowich RJ: Chronic nightly tidal peritoneal dialysis (NTPD). ASAIO Transactions, 36: M584–M588, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Twardowski ZJ: Tidal peritoneal dialysis — acute and chronic studies. European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association, European Renal Care Association. Journal XV, Sept 1990, pp 4–9.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Brandes JC, Piering WF, Beres JA: A method to assess efficacy of CAPD: Preliminary results. In: “Advances in Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis.” Proceedings of the Tenth Annual CAPD Conference, Dallas, Texas, February 1990, (Eds R Khanna, KD Nolph, BF Prowant, ZJ Twardowski, DG Oreopoulos) Peritoneal Dialysis Bulletin, Inc., Toronto, 1990, pp 192–196.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Campbell D, Fritche C, Brandes J: A review of urea and creatinine kinetics in predicting CAPD outcome. In: “Advances in Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis.” Proceedings of the Twelve Annual CAPD Conference, Seattle, WA, Febr 1992 (Eds R Khanna, KD Nolph, BF Prowant, ZJ Twardowski, DG Oreopoulos) Perit Dialysis Bulletin Inc., Toronto, 1992(in press).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Nolph KD, Twardowski ZJ, Keshaviah PR: Weekly clearances of urea and creatinine on CAPD and NIPD. Perit Dial Int, 12: 1992 (in press).Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Diaz-Buxo JA: CCPD is even better than CAPD. Kidney Int, 28(Suppl 17):S26–S28, 1985.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Diaz-Buxo JA: Incidence of peritonitis with CCPD. Perspectives Perit Dialysis, 3: 49–50, 1985.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Salusky IB, Davidson D, Hall T, Fine RN: Indications for CCPD in the child. Perspectives in Peritoneal Dialysis, 3: 48–48, 1985.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Nissenson AR: Indications for CCPD in the adult. Perspectives in Peritoneal Dialysis, 3: 46–47, 1985.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Twardowski Z, Ksiazek A, Majdan M, Janicka L, Bochenska-Nowacka E, Sokolowska G, Gutka A, Zbikowska H: Kinetics of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) with four exchanges per day. Clin Nephrol, 15: 119–131, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Twardowski ZJ, Prowant BF, Nolph KD, Martinez AJ, Lampton LM: High volume, low frequency continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int, 23: 64–70, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Twardowski ZJ, Khanna R, Nolph KD, Scalamogna A, Metzler MH, Schneider TW, Prowant BF, Ryan LP: Intraabdominal pressure during natural activities in patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Nephron, 44: 129–135, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Nolph KD, Hano JE, Teschan PE: Peritoneal sodium transport during hypertonic peritoneal dialysis: Physiologic mechanisms and clinical implications. Ann Intern Med, 70: 931–941, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zbylut J. Twardowski
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Nephrology, Department of MedicineUniversity of Missouri, Harry S. Truman Veterans Administration Hospital, Dalton Research CenterColumbiaUSA

Personalised recommendations