Structure and Evolution of the Apolipoprotein and Lipase Gene Families
The plasma lipoproteins are the transport vehicles that deliver lipids from the liver and intestine to the peripheral tissues for disposal, and in turn, they capture some of the peripherally derived lipids and return them to the liver, where they are metabolized. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic triglyceride Lipase (HL) are enzymes located on the vascular endothelial surface that modify, through lipid hydrolysis, the circulating lipoprotein particles. On the surface of these particles are the apolipoproteins, the protein constitutents which are essential for the structure and stability of the different lipoprotein classes. In addition to their structural role, the apolipoproteins also serve other diverse functions, e.g. as ligands for specific cell surface receptors (apo E and apo B-100) and enzyme activators (apo C-II and apo A-I).
KeywordsPancreatic Lipase Human Apolipoprotein Exon Shuffling High Substitution Rate Hepatic Triglyceride Lipase
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