Anomalies of Systemic Venous Connections, Persistence of the Right Venous Valve and Silent Cardiovascular Causes of Cyanosis

  • R. M. Freedom
  • L. N. Benson


Anomalies of systemic venous connections are rather common with congenital heart malformations, especially in those patients where the atria are incompletely lateralized (see Chapter 32). Most of these anomalies reflect abnormal persistence and connection of embryonal connections, rather than true “de novo” abnormalities. The majority of the anomalies of systemic venous connections do not impact directly on cardiac structure or function. Some, however, will impact on the form of palliative or corrective surgery.


Inferior Vena Cava Left Atrium Coronary Sinus Superior Vena Caval Vein 
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  • R. M. Freedom
  • L. N. Benson

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