The bladder is unusual in that it is autonomically innervated, but functions under voluntary control. Three sets of nerves innervate the bladder and urethral sphincter: sympathetic, parasympathetic and somatic, and each of these transmits both motor and sensory information. The system is integrated through connections in peripheral ganglia, sacral spinal cord and in the medulla and pons. Higher centres, including the basal ganglia, hypothalamus and frontal cortex, act to superimpose voluntary control, mainly by inhibition, on the pontine micturition centres of Barrington.
KeywordsCatheter Neuropathy Neurol Levodopa Hate
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