Organization, Structure and Expression of Pentraxin Genes

  • A. S. Whitehead
Part of the Argenteuil Symposia book series (ARGENTEUIL)


The acute phase response is a systemic reaction to an inflammatory stimulus (such as burns, surgery, infection or tissue trauma) and is characterized by a spectrum of physiological changes. Alterations in hormone and electrolyte levels, nitrogen balance and the concentrations of a wide range of serum proteins are readily observed. Quantitatively, the most dramatic change is the increase by up to a thousand-fold in the serum concentration of a limited number of acute phase proteins. In man, these are C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A component (SAA). The CRP analogue, serum amyloid P component (SAP), is not an acute phase protein in man, though in the mouse it is.


Acute Phase Protein Acute Phase Response Serum Amyloid Chloramphenicol Acetyl Transferase Heat Shock Gene 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arcone R, Gualandi G, Ciliberto G (1988) Identification of sequences responsible for acute-phase induction of human C-reactive protein. Nucl Acids Res 16: 3195–3207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Azorin F, Rich A (1985) Isolation of Z-DNA binding protein from SV40 minichromosomes: evidence for binding to the viral control region. Cell 41: 365–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Darlington GJ, Wilson DR, Lachman LB (1986) Monocyte-conditioned medium, interleukin 1, and tumour necrosis factor stimulate the acute phase response in human hepatoma cells in vitro. J Cell Biol 103: 787–793PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dickerson RE, Drew HR (1981) Structure of a B DNA dodecamer. II. Influence of base sequence on helix structure. J Mol Biol 149: 761–786PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dorin JR, Novak M, Hill RE, Brock DJH, Secher DS, van Heyningen V (1987) A clue to the basic defect in cystic fibrosis from cloning the CF antigen. Nature 326: 614–617PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dowton SB, Woods DE, Mantzouranis EC, Colten HR (1985) Syrian hamster female protein: analysis of female protein primary structure and gene expression. Science 228: 1206–1208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fernandez-Moran H, Marchalonis J, Edelman GM (1968) Electron microscopy of a hemaglutinin from Limulus polyphenols. J Mol Biol 32: 467–469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Floyd-Smith G, Whitehead AS, Colten HR, Francke U (1986) The human C-reactive protein gene (CRP) and serum amyloid P component gene (APCS) are located on the proximal long arm of chromosome 1. Immunogenetics 24: 171–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Fried MG, Wu H-M, Crothers DM (1983) CAP binding to B and Z forms of DNA. Nucl Acids Res 11: 2479–2494PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Goldman ND, Liu T-Y (1987) Biosynthesis of human C-reactive protein in cultured hepatoma cells is induced by a monocyte factor(s) other than interleukin 1. J Biol Chem 262: 2363–2368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Goldman ND, Liu T, Lei K-J (1987) Structural analysis of the locus containing the human C-reactive protein gene and its related pseudogene. J Biol Chem 262: 7001–7005PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Green L, van Antwerpen R, Stein J, Stein G, Tripputi P, Emanuel B, Seldin J, Croce C (1984) A major human histone gene cluster on the long arm of chromosome 1. Science 226: 838–840PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hu S-I, Miller SM, Samols D (1986) Cloning and characterization of the gene for rabbit C-reactive protein. Biochemistry 25: 7834–7839PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Huppi K, Mock BA, Hilgers J, Kochan J, Kinot J-P (1988) Receptors for Fc and Fc are linked on mouse chromosome 1. J Immunol 141: 2807–2810PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Inoue S, Leblond CP, Grant DS, Rico P (1986) The microfibrils of connective tissue: II. Immunohistochemical detection of the amyloid P component. Amer J Anat 176: 139–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ishikawa N, Shigemoto K, Masuyama N (1987) The complete nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of mouse serum amyloid P component. Nucl Acids Res 15: 7186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kushner I, Volanakis JE, Gewurz H (Eds) (1982) C-reactive protein and the plasma protein response to tissue injury. Ann NY Acad Sci 389Google Scholar
  18. Lalley PA, O’Brien SJ, Creau-Goldberg N, Davisson MT, Roderick TH, Echard G, Womack JE, Graves JM, Doolittle DP, Guidi JN (1988) Report of the committee on comparative mapping. Cytogenet Cell Genet 47: 364–389Google Scholar
  19. Lei K-J, Liu T, Zon G, Soravia E, Liu T-Y, Goldman ND (1985) Genomic DNA sequence for human C-reactive protein. J Biol Chem 160: 13377–13383Google Scholar
  20. Liu T-Y, Syin C, Nguyen NY, Suzuki A, Boykins RA, Lei K-J, Goldman N (1987) Comparison of protein structure and genomic structure of human, rabbit, and Limulus C-reactive proteins: possible implications for function and evolution. J Prot Chem 6: 263–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Macintyre SS, Kushner I, Samols D (1985) Secretion of C-reactive protein becomes more efficient during the course of the acute phase response. J Biol Chem 260: 4169–4173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Mantzouranis EC, Dowton SB, Whitehead AS, Edge MD, Bruns GAP, Colten HR (1985) Human serum amyloid P component: cDNA isolation, complete sequence of pre-serum amyloid P component and localization of the gene to chromosome 1. J Biol Chem 260: 7752–7756PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Morrone G, Ciliberto G, Oliviero S, Arcone R, Dente L, Content J, Cortese R (1988) Recombinant interleukin 6 regulates the transcriptional activation of a set of human acute phase protein genes. J Biol Chem 263: 12554–12558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Mortensen RF, Le PT, Taylor BA (1985) Mouse serum amyloid P-component (SAP) levels controlled by a locus on chromosome 1. Immunogenet 22: 367–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nguyen NY, Suzuki A, Boykins RA, Liu T-Y (1986a) The amino acid sequence of Limulus C-reactive protein. J Biol Chem 261: 10456–10465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Nguyen NY, Suzuki A, Cheng S-M, Zon G, Liu T-Y (1986b) Isolation and characterization of Limulus C-reactive protein genes. J Biol Chem 261: 10450–10455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Odink K, Cerletti N, Bruggen J, Clerc RG, Tarcsay L, Zwadlo G, Gerhards G, Schlegel R, Sorg C (1987) Two calcium binding proteins in infiltrate macrophages of rheumatoid arthritis. Nature 330: 80–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ohnishi S, Maeda S, Shimada K, Arao T (1986) Isolation and characterization of the complete complementary and genomic DNA sequences of human serum amyloid P component. J Biochem 100: 849–858PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Oliviera EB, Gotschlich, EC, Liu T-Y (1979) Primary structure of human C-reactive protein. J Biol Chem 254: 489–502Google Scholar
  30. Osmand AP, Friedenson B, Gewurz H, Painter RH, Hofmann T, Shelton E (1977) Characterization of C-reactive protein and the complement subcomponent Clt as homologous proteins displaying cyclic pentameric symmetry (pentraxins). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74: 739–743PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ott J, Eckstein F (1985) 31P NMR spectral analysis of the dodecamer d(CGCGAATTCGCG). Biochemistry 24: 2530–2535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Parker CS, Topol J (1984) A Drosophila RNA polymerase II transcription factor binds to the regulatory site of an hsp70 gene. Cell 37: 273–283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pelham HRB (1982) A regulatory upstream promoter element in the Drosophila Hsp70 heat-shock gene. Cell 30: 517–528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pepys MB and Baltz ML (1983) Acute phase proteins with special reference to C-reactive protein and related proteins (pentraxin) and serum amyloid A protein. Adv Immunol 34: 141–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pepys MB, Butler PJG (1987) Serum amyloid P component is the major calcium-dependent specific DNA binding protein of the serum. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 148: 308–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Robey FA, Jones KD, Tanaka T, Liu T-Y (1984) Binding of C-reactive protein to chromatin and nucleosome core particles. A possible physiological role of C-reactive protein. J Biol Chem 259: 7311–7316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Schonfelder M, Horsch A, Schmid HP (1985) Heat shock increases the synthesis of the poly (A)- binding protein in HeLa cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 82: 6884–6888PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Seldin MF, Morse HC, D’Hoostelaere L, Britten JL, Steinberg AD (1987) Mapping of alpha-spectrin on distal mouse chromosome 1. Cytogenet Cell Genet 45: 52–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Simon JA, Sutton CA, Lobell RB, Glaser RL, Lis JT (1985) Determinants of heat shock-induced chromosome puffing. Cell 40: 805–817PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tillett WS, Francis T Jr (1930) Serological reactions in pneumonia with non-protein somatic fraction of pneumococcus. J Exp Med 52: 561–571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tucci A, Goldberger G, Whitehead AS, Kay RM, Woods DE, Colten HR (1983) Biosynthesis and postsynthetic processing of human C-reactive protein. J Immunol 131: 2416–2419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Whitehead AS, Bruns GAP, Markham AF, Colten HR, Woods DE (1983) Isolation of human C- reactive protein complementary DNA and localization of the gene to chromosome 1. Science 221: 69–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Whitehead AS, Rits M, Michaelson J (1988) Molecular genetics of mouse serum amyloid P component (SAP): cloning and gene mapping. Immunogen 28: 388–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Woo P, Korenberg JR, Whitehead AS (1985) Characterization of genomic and complementary DNA sequence of human C-reactive protein, and comparison with the complementary DNA sequence of serum amyloid P component. J Biol Chem 260: 13384–13388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Zahedi K, Mortensen RF (1986) Macrophage tumoricidal activity induced by human C-reactive protein. Cancer Res 46: 5077–5083PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. S. Whitehead

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations