Musculoskeletal Trauma

  • H. Stein

Abstract

We are living in a mechanized age in which sophisticated, high-speed machinery is used for an ever increasing number of tasks. Many thousands are injured daily in this “Machine Age” and, from the medical point of view, the 1980s may be called “The Age of Trauma”. Trauma is gradually becoming the commonest pathology in medical practice, producing a vast diversity of injuries some of which are unusual in their complexity and severity. The demanding task of managing such injuries, many of them complex and life threatening, needs resourceful and original thinking, sophisticated diagnostic techniques, and awareness of even minor clinical signs. Significant injuries to the musculoskeletal system usually result in radiographic abnormalities and, therefore, imaging is of paramount importance in evaluating such patients.

Keywords

Adduct Neurol Stein Rosen Paraplegia 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Angtuaco EJ, Binet EF (1984) Radiology of thoraric and lumbar fracture. Clin Orthop 189:43–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersen PE (1983) Sectional imaging methods. A comparison. University Park Press, Baltimore, P. 235Google Scholar
  3. Baker RP, Grubb RL (jr) (1983) Complete fracture-dislocation of cervical spine without permanent neurological sequelae. J Neurosurg 58: 760–762PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brant-Zawadzki M, Jeffrey RB (jr), Minagi H, Pitts LH (1982) High resolution CT of thoracolumbar facets. AJR 138: 699–704PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Calenoff L, Chessare JW, Rogers LF, Toerge J, Rosen JS (1978) Multiple level spinal injuries. Importance of early recognition. AJR 130: 665–669PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Cone RO (1984) Clues to the initial radiographic evaluation of skeletal trauma. Emerg Med Clin North Am 2: 245–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Daffner RH, Deeb ZL, Rothfus WE (1987) The posterior vertebral body line: importance in the detection of burst fractures. AJR 148: 93–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Denis F (1984) Spinal instability as defined by the three-column spine concept in acute spinal trauma. Clin Orthop 189: 65–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Dias JJ. Stirling AJ, Finlay DBL, Gregg PJ (1987) Computerised axial tomography for tibial plateau fractures. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 69: 84–88Google Scholar
  10. Edeiken-Monroe B, Wagner LK, Harris JH (jr) (1986) Hyperextension dislocation of the cervical spine. AJR 146:803–808PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Epstein HC (1973) Traumatic dislocation of the hip. Clin Orthop 92: 116–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Epstein HC, Wiss DA, Cozen L (1985) Posterior fracture dislocation of the hip with fractures of the femoral head. Clin Orthop 201: 9–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Evans DK (1983) Dislocation of the cervico-thoracic junction. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 65: 124–133Google Scholar
  14. Faerber EN, Wolpert SM, Scott RM, Belkin SC, Carter BL (1979) Computed tomography of spinal fractures. J Comput Assist Tomogr 3: 657–661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gertzbein SD, Chenoweth DR (1977) Occult injuries of the pelvic ring. Clin Orthop 128: 202–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Gill K, Bucholz RW (1984) The role of computerized tomographic scanning in the evaluation of major pelvic fractures. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 66: 34–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Gilula LA, Murphy WA, Tailor CC, Patel RB (1979) Computed tomography of the osseous pelvis. Radiology 132: 107–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Goldstein SJ, Woodring JH, Young AB (1982) Occipital condyle fracture associated with cervical spine injury. Surg Neurol 17: 350–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Handel SF, Lee YY (1981) Computed tomography of spinal fractures. Radiol Clin North Am 19: 69–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Hansen ST (jr) (1982) CT for pelvic fractures. AJR 138:592–593PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Harley JD, Mack LA, Winquist RA (1982) CT of acetabular fractures: Comparison with conventional radiography. AJR 138: 413–417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Harryman DT (1986) Complete fracture dislocation of the thoracic spine associated with spontaneous neurologic decompres- sion. A case report. Clin Orthop 207: 64–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hoffmeyer P, Seigne JM, Garcia J, Vasey H (1984) The value of computerized tomography in fractures of the pelvic ring. Int Orthop 8: 1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Howie JL (1985) Computed tomography of the bony pelvis: A protocol for multiplanar imaging. Part II Trauma. J Can Ass Radiol 36: 287–295Google Scholar
  25. Kakulas BA, Bedbrook GM (1976) Pathology of injuries of the vertebral column In: Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW (eds) Handbook of clinical neurology, vol. 25, North Holland, Amsterdam, p. 27Google Scholar
  26. Keene JS (1984) Radiographic evaluation of thoraco-lumbar fractures. Clin Orthop 189: 58–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Keene JS, Goletz TH, Lilleas R, Alter AJ, Sackett JF (1982) Diagnosis of vertebral fractures. A comparison of conventional radiography, conventional tomography and computed axial tomography. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 64: 586–595PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Kim KS, Rogers LF, Regenbogen V (1986) Pitfalls in piain film diagnosis of cervical spine injuries: false positive Interpretation. Surg Neurol 25: 381–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Koyama T, Uchibori M, Kubo Y, Handa J (1984) Diagnostic value of CT in atlanto-axial dislocation and the choice of treatment. No Shinkei Geka 12: 1281–1290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Lange TA, Alter AJ (jr) (1980) Evaluation of complex acetabular fractures by computed tomography. J Comput Assist Tomogr 4: 849–852PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lasda NA, Levinsohn EM, Yuan, HA, Burnell WP (1978) Com-puterized tomography in disorders of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 60: 1099–1102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Lee C, Rogers LF, Woodring JH, Goldstein SJ, Kim KS (1984) Frac¬tures of the cranio-vertebral junction, associated with other fractures of the spine; overlooked entity. AJNR 5: 775–781PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Lindahl S, Willen J, Irstam L (1983) Computed tomography of bone fragments in the spinal canal. An experimental study. Spine 8: 181–186Google Scholar
  34. Mack LA, Harley JD, Winquist RA (1982) CT of acetabular fractures: analysis of fracture patterns. AJR 138: 407–412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. McAfee PC, Yuan HA, Fredrickson BE, Lubicky JP (1983) The value of computed tomography in thoraco-lumbar fractures. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 65: 461–473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Mettler CC (1947) Surgery in history of medicine. Blackistone, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  37. Newton TH, Potts DG (1983) Computed tomography of the spine and spinal cord. In: Newton TH, Potts DG (eds.) Modern neuroradiology, vol. 1, San Anselmo, ClavadelGoogle Scholar
  38. O’Callaghan JP, Ullrich CG, Yuan HA (1980) CT of facet distrac- tion in flexion injuries of the thoraco-lumbar spine. The “NAKED” facet. AJR 134: 563–568Google Scholar
  39. Pakush RS (1982) Present concepts in diagnostic radiology. Proc. Latterman Arm Med Cent Congr San-FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  40. Pennal GF, Tile M, Waddell JP, Garside H (1980) Pelvic disruption. Assessment and Classification. Clin Orthop 151: 12–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Post MJD (1980) Radiographic evaluation of the spine. Current advances with emphasis on computed tomography. Masson, New-YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Post MJ, Green BA, Quencer RM, Stokes NA, Callahan RA, Eismont FJ (1982) The value of computed tomography in spinal trauma. Spine 7:417–431 Suppl 367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Roub LW, Drayer BP (1979) Spinal computed tomography. Limi¬tations and applications. AJR 133:267–273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Sauser DD, Billimoria PE, Rouse GA, Mudge K (1980) CT evalua¬tion of hip trauma. AJR 135: 269–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Stein H (1983) Computerized tomography for ascertaining osteo- cartilagenous intra-articular (sliee) fractures of the femoral head. Isr J Med Sei 19: 180–184Google Scholar
  46. St Pierre RK, Oliver T, Somoygi J, Whitesides T, Fleming LL (1984) Computerized tomography in the evaluation and Classi¬fication of fractures of the acetabulum. Clin Orthop 188: 234–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Streitwieser DR, Knopp R, Wales LR, Williams JL, Tonnemacher K (1983) Accuracy of standard radiographic views in detecting cervical spine fractures. Ann Emerg Med 12: 538–542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tile M, Pennal GF (1980) Pelvic disruption. Principles of management. Clin Orthop 151: 56–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Tile M (1984) Fractures of the pelvis and acetabulum. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, LondonGoogle Scholar
  50. Trafton PG, Boyd CA (jr) (1984) Computed tomography of thora¬cic and lumbar spine injuries. J Trauma 24: 506–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Urist MR (1948) Fracture-dislocation of the hip joint: the nature of the traumatic lesion, treatment, late complications and end results. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 30:669–727Google Scholar
  52. Walker RH, Burton DS (1982) Computerized tomography in assessment of acetabular fractures. J Trauma 22:227–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Yetkin Z, Osborn AG, Giles DS, Haughton VM (1985) Uncovertebral and facet joint dislocations in cervical articular pillar fractures; CT evaluation. AJNR 6:633–637PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Stein

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations