Advertisement

Neural Connections Between the Lower Urinary Tract and the Spinal Cord

  • John F. B. Morrison

Abstract

There have been enormous advances in our knowledge of the functional anatomy of the autonomic nervous system in the last decade. Much of the detailed knowledge that has been acquired has been the result of animal studies, and different species will be considered separately in this chapter, as the research worker may find it helpful to refer to the differences between them. In all species there exist two or more segments in the lower lumbar region between the lumbar sympathetic and the sacral parasympathetic outflows that have no afferent or efferent connections with the viscera. Confusion may arise, however, because the nomenclature of spinal segments is defined according to the corresponding vertebrae, which vary in number between the species; thus, some of the common laboratory animals have 13 thoracic, 7 lumbar and 4 sacral segments and, as a result, the parasympathetic outflow may be from the lumbosacral junction rather than the middle of the sacral cord.

Keywords

Dorsal Horn Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Pudendal Nerve Ventral Horn Pelvic Nerve 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aldskogius H, Elfin L-G, Andersson-Forsman C (1986) Primary sensory afferents in the inferior mesenteric ganglion and related nerves of the guinea pig. J Auton Nerv Syst 15:179–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Applebaum AE, Vance WH, Coggeshall RE (1980) Segmental localisation of sensory cells that innervate the bladder. J Comp Neurol 192:203–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anand P, Gibson SJ, McGregor GP, Blank MA, Ghatei MA, Bacarese-Hamilton AJ, Polak JM, Bloom SR (1983) A VIP- containing system concentrated in the lumbosacral region of the human spinal cord. Nature 305:143–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baron R, Jänig W, McLachlan EM (1985a) The afferent and sympathetic components of the lumbar spinal outflow to the colon and pelvic organs in the cat. I. The hypogastric nerve. J Comp Neurol 238:135–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baron R, Jänig W, McLachlan EM (1985b) The afferent and sympathetic components of the lumbar spinal outflow to the colon and pelvic organs in the cat. 1. The lumbar splanchnic nerves. J Comp Neurol 238:147–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baron R, Jänig W, McLachlan EM (1985c) On the anatomical organisation of the lumbosacral sympathetic chain and the lumbar splanchnic nerves of the cat—Langley revisited. J Auton Nerv Syst 12:289–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blackman JG, Crowcroft PJ, Devine EE, Holman ME, Yonemura K (1969) Transmission from preganglionic fibres in the hypogastric nerve to peripheral ganglia of male guinea-pigs. J Physiol 201:723–743.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Blank MA, Anand P, Lumb BM, Morrison JFB, Bloom SR (1984) Release of VIP-like immunoreactivity from cat urinary bladder and sacral spinal cord during pelvic nerve stimulation. Dig Dis Sci 29 (8):115P.Google Scholar
  9. Bloom SR, Polak JM (eds) (1981) Gut hormones, 2nd edn. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, p 605.Google Scholar
  10. Breedlove SM, Arnold AP (1980) Hormone accumulation in a sexually dimorphic nucleus of the rat spinal cord. Science 210:564–566.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brindley GS, Rushton DN, Craggs MD (1974) The pressure exerted by the external sphincter of the urethra when its motor nerve fibres are stimulated electrically. Br J Urol 46:453–462.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown AG (1981) Organisation in the spinal cord: the anatomy and physiology of identified neurones. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York.Google Scholar
  13. Coggeshall RE (1980) Law of separation of function of the spinal roots. Physiol Rev 60:716–755.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Coggeshall RE, Coulter JD, Willis WD (1974) Unmyelinated axons in the ventral roots of the cat lumbosacral enlargement. J Comp Neurol 153:39–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Costa M, Furness JB (1973) Observations on the anatomy and amine histochemistry of the nerves and ganglia which supply the pelvic viscera and on the associated chromaffin tissue in the guinea-pig. Z Anat EntwGech 140:85–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dahlstrom A, Fuxe K (1965) Evidence for the existence of monoamine neurones in the central nervous system. II. Experimentally induced changes in the interneuronal amine levels of bulbospinal neuron systems. Acta Physiol Scand 64 (suppl 247):7–34.Google Scholar
  17. de Groat WC (1986) Spinal cord projections and neuropeptides in visceral afferent neurons. In: Cervero F, Morrison JFB (eds) Visceral sensation. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 165–187 (Progress in brain research, vol 67).Google Scholar
  18. de Groat WC, Nadelhaft I, Milne RJ, Booth AM, Morgan C, Thor K (1981) Organisation of the sacral parasympathetic reflex pathways to the urinary bladder and large intestine. J Auton Nerv Syst 3:135–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. de Groat WC, Kawatani M, Hisamitsu T, Lowe I, Morgan C, Roppolo J, Booth AM, Nadelhaft I, Kuo D, Thor K (1983) the role of neuropeptides in the sacral autonomic reflex pathways of the cat. J Auton Nerv Syst 7:339–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dockray GJ, Sharkey KA (1986) Neurochemistry of visceral afferent neurones. In: Cervero F, Morrison JFB (eds) Visceral sensation. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 133–148 (Progress in brain research, vol 67).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Donker PJ, Droes JThPM, Ulden BM (1976) Anatomy of the musculature and innervation of the bladder and the urethra. In: Williams DI, Chisholm GD (eds) Scientific foundations of urology, vol II, Heinemann, London, pp 32–39.Google Scholar
  22. Downie JW, Champion JA, Nance DM (1984) A quantitative analysis of the afferent and extrinsic efferent innervation of specific regions of the bladder and urethra in the cat. Brain Res Bull 12:735–740.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Elbadawi A, Schenk EA (1968) A new theory of the innervation of bladder musculature. Part 1. Morphology of the intrinsic vesical innervation apparatus. J Urol 99:585–587.Google Scholar
  24. Feher E, Vajda J, Csa’nyi K (1980) Quantitative analysis for innervation of smooth muscle cells in the wall of the urinary bladder. J Auton Nerv Syst 2:71–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fitzgerald M (1983) Capsaicin and sensory neurones—a review. Pain 15:109–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gabella G (1976) Structure of the autonomic nervous system. Chapman and Hall, London, p214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gibson SJ, Polak JM, Anand P, Blank MA, Morrison JFB, Kelly JS, Bloom SR (1984a) The distribution and origin of VIP in the spinal cord of six mammalian species. Peptides 5:201–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gibson SJ, Polak JM, Bloom SR, Sabate IM, Mulderry PM, Ghatei MA, McGregor GP, Morrison JFB, Kelly JS, Evans RM, Rosenfield MG (1984b) Calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity in the spinal cord of man and eight other species. J Neurosci 4:3101–3111.Google Scholar
  29. Greenwood D, Coggeshall RE, Hulsebosch CE (1985) Sexual dimorphism in the numbers of neurones in the pelvic ganglia of adult rats. Brain Res 340:160–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hamberger B, Norberg KA (1965) Adrenergic synaptic terminals and nerve cells in bladder ganglia of the cat. Int J Neuropharmacol 4:41–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hancock MB, Peveto CA (1979) Preganglionic neurones in the sacral spinal cord of the rat: an HRP study. Neurosci Lett 11:1–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hancock MB, Peveto CA (1980) A preganglionic autonomic nucleus in the dorsal gray commissure of the lumbar spinal cord in the rat. J Comp Neurol 183:65–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Henry JL, Calaresu FR (1972) Topography and numerical distribution of neurons of the thoraco-lumbar intermediolateral nucleus in the cat. J Comp Neurol 144:205–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hökfelt T, Eide R, Johansson O, Luft R, Nilsson G, Arimura A (1976) Immunohistochemical evidence for separate populations of somatostatin-containing and substance P-con- taining primary afferent neurones in the rat. Neuroscience 1:131–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Honda CN, Rethelyi M, Petrusz P (1983) Preferential histo- chemical location of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the sacral spinal cord of the cat: light and electron microscopic observations. J Neurosci 3:2183–2196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Hulsebosch CE, Coggeshall RE (1982) An analysis of the axon populations in the nerves to the pelvic viscera in the rat. J Comp Neurol 211:1–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jänig W, Morrison JFB (1986) Functional properties of spinal visceral afferents supplying abdominal and pelvic organs, with special emphasis on visceral nociception. In: Cervero F, Morrison JFB (eds) Visceral sensation. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 87–114 (Progress in brain research, vol 67).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kuo DC, Hisamitsu T, de Groat WC (1984) A sympathetic projection from sacral paravertebral ganglia to the pelvic nerve and to postganglionic nerves on the surface of the urinary bladder and large intestine of the cat. J Comp Neurol 226:76–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kuru M (1965) Nervous control of micturition. Physiol Rev 45:425–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kuzuhara S, Kanayawa I, Nkanaishi T (1980) Topographical localisation of the Onufs nuclear neurones innervating the rectal and vesical striated muscle sphincters: a retrograde fluorescent double labelling in cat and dog. Neurosci Lett 16:125–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Langley JN, Anderson HK (1896) The innervation of the pelvic and adjoining viscera. VII. Anatomical observations. J Physiol 20:372–406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Laruelle L (1937) La structure de la moelle épiniére en coupes longitudinales. Rev Neurol 67:695–725.Google Scholar
  43. Laruelle L (1948) Étude d’anatomie microscopique du névraxe sur coupes longitudinales. Acta Neurol Psychiatr Belg 48:138–280.Google Scholar
  44. Laruelle L, Reumont M (1958) Histologie de quelques aspects physiopathologiques de la poliomyelite humaine. Acta Neurol Psychiatr Belg 58:297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Mackel R (1979) Segmental and descending control of the external urethral and anal sphincters in the cat. J Physiol 294:105–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Mannen T, Iwata M, Toyokura Y, Nagashima K (1982) The Onufs nucleus and the external anal sphincter muscles in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Shy-Drager syndrome. Acta Neuropathol 58:255–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mawe GM, Bresnahan JC, Beattie MS (1984) Primary afferent projections from dorsal and ventral roots to autonomic preganglionic neurons in the cat sacral spinal cord: light and microscopic observations. Brain Res 290:152–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McLachlan Elspeth M (1985) The components of the hypogastric nerve in male and female guinea-pigs. J Auton Nerv Syst 13:327–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. McMahon SB (1986) The localisation of fluoride-resistant acid phosphatase (FRAP) in the pelvic nerves and sacral spinal cord of rats. Neurosci Lett 64:305–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. McMahon SB, Morrison JFB (1982a) Spinal neurones with long projections activated from the abdominal viscera of the cat. J Physiol 332:1–20.Google Scholar
  51. McMahon SB, Morrison JFB (1982b) Two groups of spinal interneurones that respond to stimulation of the abdominal viscera of the cat. J Physiol 332:21–34.Google Scholar
  52. Matsushita M, Tanami T (1983) Contralateral terminations of primary afferent axons in the sacral and caudal segments of the cat, as studied by anterograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. J Comp Neurol 220:206–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mesulam MM, Brushart TM (1979) Transganglionic and anterograde transport of horseradish peroxidase across dorsal root ganglia: a tetramethyl benzidine method for tracing central sensory connections of muscles and peripheral nerves. Neuroscience 4:1107–1117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Micevych PE, Coquelin A, Arnold AP (1986) Immunochemical distribution of substance P, serotonin and methionine-enkephalin in sexually dimorphic nuclei of the rat lumbar cord. J Comp Neurol 248:235–244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Molander C, Xu Q, Grant G (1984) The cytoarchitectonic organisation of the spinal cord in the rat. I. The lower thoracic and lumbosacral cord. J Comp Neurol 230:133–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Morgan C, O’Hara P (1984) Electronmicroscopic identification of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in visceral primary afferent axons in the sacral spinal cord of the cat. Anat Ree 208:121A.Google Scholar
  57. Morgan C, Nadelhaft I, de Groat WC (1981) The distribution of visceral primary afferents from the pelvic nerve within Lissauer’s tract and the spinal gray matter and its relationship to the sacral parasympathetic mucleus. J Comp Neurol 201:415–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Morgan C, de Groat WC, Nadelhaft I (1986) The spinal distribution of sympathetic preganglionic and visceral afferent neurons that send axons into the hypogastric nerve of the cat. J Comp Neurol 243:23–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nadelhaft I, Booth AM (1984) The location and morphology of preganglionic neurons and the distribution of visceral afferents from the rat pelvic nerve: a horseradish peroxidase study. J Comp Neurol 226:238–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Nadelhaft I, de Groat WC, Morgan C (1980) Location and morphology of parasympathetic preganglionic neurons in the sacral spinal cord of the cat revealed by retrograde axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase. J Comp Neurol 193:265–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nadelhaft I, Roppolo J, Morgan C, de Groat WC (1983) Parasympathetic preganglionic neurons and visceral primary afferents in the monkey sacral spinal cord revealed following the application of horseradish peroxidase to pelvic nerve. J Comp Neurol 216:36–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Neuhuber W (1982) The central projections of visceral afferent neurons of the inferior mesenteric plexus and hypogastric nerve and the location of the related sensory and preganglionic sympathetic cell bodies in the rat. Anat Embryol 164:413–425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Onuf (Onufrowicz )B (1899) Notes on the arrangement and function of the cell groups in the sacral region of the spinal cord. J Nerv Ment Dis 26:498–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Onuf (Onufrowicz )B (1900) On the arrangement and function of the cell groups in the sacral region of the spinal cord. Arch Neurol Psychopathol 3:387–411.Google Scholar
  65. Petras JM, Cummings JF (172) Autonomic neurons in the spinal cord of the rhesus monkey: a correlation of the findings of cytoarchitectonics and sympathectomy with fiber degeneration following dorsal rhizotomy. J Comp Neurol 146:189- 218.Google Scholar
  66. Petras JM, Cummings JF (1978) Sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of the urinary bladder and urethra. Brain Res 153:363–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pick J (1970) The autonomic nervous system: morphological, comparative, clinical and surgical aspects. Lippincott, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  68. Puriton T, Fletcher T, Bradley W (1971) Sensory perikarya in autonomic ganglia. Nature 231:63–64.Google Scholar
  69. Rexed B (1954) A cytoarchitectonic atlas of the spinal cord in the cat. J Comp Neurol 100:297–379.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Risling M, Dahlsgaard C-J, Cukierman A, Cuello AC (1984) Electronmicroscopic and immunohistochemical evidence that unmyelinated ventral root axons make U-turns or enter the spinal pia mater. J Comp Neurol 225:53–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Romanes GJ (1951) The motor cell columns of the lumbosacral spinal cord of the cat. J Comp Neurol 94:313–363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Roppolo JR, Nadelhaft I, de Groat WC (1985) The organisation of pudendal motoneurones and primary afferent projections in the spinal cord of the Rhesus monkey revealed by horseradish peroxidase. J Comp Neurol 234:475–488.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sato M, Mizuno M, Konishi A (1978) Localisation of motoneurones innervating perineal muscles: a HRP study in the cat. Brain Res 140:149–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Schnitzlein HN, Hoffman HH, Tucker CC, Quigley MB (1960) The pelvic splanchnic nerves of the male rhesus monkey. J Comp Neurol 114:51–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Schnitzlein HN, Hoffman HH, Hamlett DM, Howell EM (1963) A study of the sacral parasympathetic nucleus. J Comp Neurol 120:477–493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Schroder HD (1981) Onufs nucleus X: morphological study of a human spinal nucleus. Anat Embryol 162:443–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Schroder HD (1985) Anatomical and pathoanatomical studies on the spinal efferent systems innervating pelvic structures. J Auton Nerv Syst 14:23–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sharkey KA, Williams RG, Schultzberg M, Dockray GJ (1983) Sensory substance P-innervation of the urinary bladder: possible site of action of capsaicin in causing urine retention in rats. Neuroscience 10:861–868.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sheehan D (1941) Spinal autonomic outflows in man and monkey. J Comp Neurol 75:341–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sherrington CS (1892) Notes on the arrangement of some motor fibres in the lumbo-sacral plexus. J Physiol 13:621–772.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Sjöstrand NO (1965) The adrenergic innervation of the vas deferens and of the accessory male genital organs. Acta Physiol Scand [Suppl] 257:1–82.Google Scholar
  82. Su HC, Wharton J, Polak JM, Mulderry PK, Ghatei MA, Gibson SJ, Terenghi G, Morrison JFB, Ballesta J, Bloom SR (1986) Calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity in afferent neurons supplying the urinary tract: combined retrograde tracing and immunohistochemistry. Neuroscience 18:737–747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Uemura E, Fletcher TF, Dirks VA, Bradley WE (1973) Distribution of sacral afferent axons in cat urinary bladder. Am J Anat 136:305–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Uemura E, Fletcher TF, Bradley WE (1974) Distribution of lumbar afferent axons in muscle coat of cat urinary bladder. Am J Anat 139:389–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ueyama T, Mizuno N, Nomura S, Konishi A, Itoh K, Arakawa H (1984) Central distribution of afferent and efferent components of the pudendal nerve in the cat. J Comp Neurol 222:38–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ueyama T, Mizuno N, Takahashi U, Nomura S, Arakawa H, Matsushima R (1985) Central distribution of efferent and afferent components of the pudendal nerve in Macaque monkeys. J Comp Neurol 232:548–556.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ulmsten U, Sjöberg NO, Alm P, Andersson KE, Owman C, Walles B (1977) Functional role of an adrenergic sphincter in the female urethra of the guinea-pig. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 56:387–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. White JC (1943) Sensory innervation of the viscera: studies on visceral afferent neurones in man based on neurosurgical procedures for the relief of intractable pain. Res Publ Assoc Nerv Ment Dis 23:373–390.Google Scholar
  89. White JC, Sweet WH (1955) Pain. Its mechanisms and neurosurgical control. Thomas, Springfield, 111.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • John F. B. Morrison

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations