Neural Connections Between the Lower Urinary Tract and the Spinal Cord

  • John F. B. Morrison


There have been enormous advances in our knowledge of the functional anatomy of the autonomic nervous system in the last decade. Much of the detailed knowledge that has been acquired has been the result of animal studies, and different species will be considered separately in this chapter, as the research worker may find it helpful to refer to the differences between them. In all species there exist two or more segments in the lower lumbar region between the lumbar sympathetic and the sacral parasympathetic outflows that have no afferent or efferent connections with the viscera. Confusion may arise, however, because the nomenclature of spinal segments is defined according to the corresponding vertebrae, which vary in number between the species; thus, some of the common laboratory animals have 13 thoracic, 7 lumbar and 4 sacral segments and, as a result, the parasympathetic outflow may be from the lumbosacral junction rather than the middle of the sacral cord.


Dorsal Horn Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Pudendal Nerve Ventral Horn Pelvic Nerve 
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  • John F. B. Morrison

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