• R. P. Sengupta
  • V. L. McAllister


Vasospasm is a major problem in the management of patients with aneurysmal SAH. The surgical obliteration of the aneurysm is the goal; however, the timing of surgery is influenced by the neurological condition of the patient, as well as by the presence of vasospasm. Too long a delay in treatment may result in further bleeds. It is common knowledge that not all patients who exhibit vasospasm develop neurological deficit, and the reverse is also true. One has to weigh up the pros and cons of waiting for the spasm to disappear or of obliterating the aneurysm as early as possible. Our policy is to operate on patients with a stable neurological condition as soon as possible.


Cerebral Blood Flow Subarachnoid Haemorrhage Intracranial Aneurysm Cerebral Vasospasm Arterial Spasm 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams CBT, Fearnside MR, O’Laoire SA (1978) An investigation with serial angiography into the evolution of cerebral arterial spasm following aneurysm surgery. J Neurosurg 49:805–815PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alksne JF, Greenhoot JH (1974) Experimental catecholamine induced chronic cerebral vasospasm. Myonecrosis in vessel wall. J Neurosurg 41:440–445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Allcock JM, Drake CG (1965) Ruptured intracranial aneurysms. The role of arterial spasm. J Neurosurg 22:21–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Allen GS, Bahr AL (1979) Cerebral arterial spasm, Part 10. Reversal of acute and chronic spasm in dogs with orally administered nifedipine. Neurosurgery 4:43–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Allen GS, Baughart SB (1979) Cerebral arterial spasm, Part 9. In vitro effects of nifedipine on serotonin, phenylephrine and potassium induced contraction of canine basilar and femoral arteries. Neurosurgery 4:37–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Allen GS, Gross CJ (1976) Cerebral arterial spasm. Part 7. In vitro effects of alpha adrenergic agents on canine arteries from six anatomical sites and six blocking agents on serotonin induced contractions of the canine basilar artery. Surg Neurol 6:63–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Allen GS, Gross CJ, Henderson LA, Chou SN (1976) Cerebral arterial spasm. Part 4. In vitro effects of temporary serotonin, serotonin analogues, large non-physiological concentrations of serotonin and extra-cellular calcium and magnesium on serotonin induced contractions of the canine basilar artery. J Neurosurg 44:585–593PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Allen GS, Batty ER, Boone S, Chou S, Kelly D, Weir B (1982) Preliminary results of multi-central double blind prospective study of nimodipine in the prevention of delayed neurological lypsis for cerebral arterial spasm. Proceedings of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons, Toronto, p 98Google Scholar
  9. Asano T, Tanishima T, Sasaki T, Sano K (1980) Possible participation of the free radical reaction initiated by clot lysis in the pathogenesis of vasospasm following subarachnoid haemorrhage. In: Wilkins RH (ed) Cerebral arterial spasm. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore pp 190–201Google Scholar
  10. Astrup J, Symon L, Branston NM, Lassen NA (1977) Cortical evoked potential and extracellular potassium and hydrogen at critical levels of brain ischaemia. Stroke 8:51–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bayliss WM, Hill L, Gulland GL (1895) On the intracranial pressure and the cerebral circulation. J Physiol (Lond) 18:334–364Google Scholar
  12. Bell BA, Kendal BE, Symon L (1980) Computed tomography in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 43:522–524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Boullin DJ, Mohan J, Grahame-Smith DG (1976) Evidence for the presence of a vaso-active substance (possibly involved in the aetiology of cerebral vasospasm) in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 39:756–766PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Branston NM, Symon L, Crockard HA (1976) Recovery of the cortical evoked response following temporary middle cerebral arterial occlusion in baboons in relation to local blood flow and PO2. Stroke 7:151–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Brawley BS, Strandness BE, Kelly WA (1967) The physiological response to therapy in experimental cerebral ischaemia. Arch Neurol 17:180–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Brawley BW, Strandness BE, Kelly WA (1968) The biphasic respohse of cerebral vasospasm in experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage. J Neurol 28:1–7Google Scholar
  17. Brown FD, Hanlon K, Mullan S (1978) Treatment of aneurysmal hemiplegia with dopamine and mannitol. J Neurosurg 49:525–529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Crompton MR (1963) Hypothalamic lesions following the rupture of cerebral berry aneurysms. Brain 86:301–314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Crompton MR (1964a) Cerebral infarction following the rupture of cerebral berry aneurysms. Brain 87:263–279Google Scholar
  20. Crompton MR (1964b) The pathogenesis of cerebral infarction following the rupture of cerebral berry aneurysms. Brain 87:491–510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Denny-Brown D (1951) The treatment of recurrent cerebrovascular symptoms and the question of “vasospasm”. Med Clin North Am 35:1457–1474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Denny-Brown D, Meyer JS (1957) The cerebral collateral circulation 2. Production of cerebral infarction by ischaemic anoxia and its reversibility in early stages. Neourology 7:567–579Google Scholar
  23. du Boulay G (1963) Distribution of spasm in the intracranial arteries after subarachnoid haemorrhage. Acta Radiol [Di—agn] 1:256–266Google Scholar
  24. du Boulay G, Gado M (1974) The protective value of spasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage. Brain 97:153–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Echlin FA (1942) Vasospasm and focal cerebral ischaemia: an experimental study. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 47:77–96Google Scholar
  26. Echlin FA (1965) Spasm of basilar and vertebral arteries caused by experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage. J Neurosurg 23:1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Ecker A, Riemenschneider PA (1951) Artériographie demonstration of spasm of the intracranial arteries with special reference to saccular arterial aneurysm. J Neurosurg 8:660–667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Espinosa F, Weir B, Boisvert D, Overton T, Castor W (1982) Chronic cerebral vasospasm after large subarachnoid haemorrhage in monkeys. J Neurosurg 57:224–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Farhat SM, Schneider RC (1967) Observations on the effect of systemic blood pressure on intracranial circulation in patients with cerebrovascular insufficiency. J Neurosurg 27:441–445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Fein JM (1975) Cerebral energy metabolism after subarachnoid haemorrhage. Stroke 6:1–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Fein JM, Flor WJ, Cohan SL, Parkhurst J (1974) Sequential changes of vascular ultrastructure in experimental cerebral vasospasm, myonecrosis of subarachnoid arteries. J Neurosurg 41:49–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Fisher CM, Robson EH, Ojemann RG (1977) Cerebral vasospasm with ruptured saccular aneurysm. The clinical manifestations. Neurosurgery 1:245–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Fisher CM, Kistler JP, Davies JM (1980) Relation of cerebral vasospasm to subarachnoid haemorrhage, visualised by computerized tomographic scanning. Neurosurgery 6:1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Flamm ES, Ransohoff J (1976) Treatment of cerebral vasospasm by control of cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Surg Neurol 6:223–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Fleischer AS, Tindall GT (1980) Cerebral vasospasm following aneurysm rupture: a protocol for therapy and prophylaxis. J Neurosurg 52:149–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Florey H (1925) Microscopical observations on the circulation of blood in the cerebral cortex. Brain 48:43–64Google Scholar
  37. Fraser RAR (1980) Cerebral vasospasm—after 15 years in laboratory assessment of animal models. In: Wilkins RH (ed) Cerebral arterial spasm. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 287–290Google Scholar
  38. Giannotta SL, McGillicuddy JE, Kindt GW (1977) Diagnosis and treatment of postoperative cerebral vasospasm. Surg Neurol 8:286–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gilroy J, Arnhart MI, Meyer JS (1969) Treatment of acute stroke with dextran 40. JAMA 210:293–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Graham DI, MacPherson P, Pitts LH (1983) Correlation between angiographic vasospasm, haematoma and ischaemic brain damage following subarachnoid haemorrhage. J Neurosurg 59:223–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Grubb RL, Raichle ME, Eichling JO, Gado MH (1977) Effects of subarachnoid haemorrhage on cerebral blood volume, blood flow and oxygen utilization in humans. J Neurosurg 46:446–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Handa H, Osaka K, Okamoto S (1980) Breakdown products of erythrocytes as a cause of cerebral vasospasm. In: Wilkins RH (ed) Cerebral arterial spasm. Williams and Wilkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  43. Harper AM (1966) Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow— influence of the arterial blood pressure on the blood flow through the cerebral cortex. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 29:398–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Harper AM, Deshmukh VD, Rowan JO, Jennett WB (1972) The influence of sympathetic nervous activity on cerebral blood flow. Arch Neurol 27:1–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Harvey J, Rasmussen T (1951) Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery—an experimental study. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 66:20–29Google Scholar
  46. Hashi K, Meyer JS, Shinmaru S, Welch KM A, Teraura T (1972a) Cerebral haemodynamic and metabolic changes after experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage. J Neurol Sci 17:1–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Hashi K, Meyer JS, Shinmaru S, Welch KMA, Teraura T (1972b) Changes in cerebral vasomotor reactivity in CO2 and autoregulation following experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage. J Neurol Sci 17:15–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Heilbrun MP, Olesen J, Lassen NA (1972) Regional cerebral blood flow studies in subarachnoid haemorrhage. J Neurosurg 37:36–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Hope TD, Branston NM, Symon L (1977a) Restoration of neurological function with hypertension in acute experimental cerebral ischaemia. Acta Neurol Scand 56 (Suppl 64): 506–507Google Scholar
  50. Hope TD, Branston NM, Symon L (1977b) Restoration of neurological function with induced hypertension in acute experimental cerebral ischaemia. In: Ingvar DH, Lassen NA (eds) Cerebral function, metabolism and circulation. Munksgaard, Copenhagen, pp 506–507Google Scholar
  51. James IM (1968) Changes in cerebral blood flow and systemic arterial pressure following spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage. Clin Sci 35:11–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Kapp J, Mahaley MS Jr, Odom GL (1968) Cerebral arterial spasm. Part II: Experimental evaluation of mechanical and humoral factors in pathogenesis. J Neurosurg 29:339–349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kapp JP, Neill WR, Neill CL, Hodges LR, Smith RR (1982) The three phases of vasospasm. J Surg Neurol 18:40–45Google Scholar
  54. Kassel NF, Peerless J, Durward TJ, Beck DW, Drake CG, Adams HP (1982) Treatment of ischaemic deficits from vasospasm with intravascular volume expansion and induced arterial hypertension. Neurosurgery 11:337–343Google Scholar
  55. Kazda S, Towart R (1982) Nimodipine, a new calcium antagonist drug with preferential cerebrovascular action. Acta Neurochir 63:259–265Google Scholar
  56. Kelly PJ, Gorton RJ, Grossman RG, Eisenberg HM (1977) Cerebral perfusion, vascular spasm and outcome in patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysm. J Neurosurg 47:44–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kistler JP (1982) Predicting symptomatic vasospasm in patients with SAH from a ruptured saccular aneurysm. Advances in Neurosurgery No 1–5. Harvard Medical School, Department of Continuous Medical Education, 25 Shattuck Street, Boston, M.A.Google Scholar
  58. Kosnik EJ, Hunt WE (1976) Postoperative hypertension in the management of patients with intracranial arterial aneurysms. J Neurosurg 45:148–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Lassen NA (1959) Cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption in man. Physiol Rev 39:183–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Little JR (1978) Modification of acute focal ischaemia by treatment with mannitol. Stroke 9:4–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Lowe RF, Gilboe DD (1971) Demonstration of alpha and beta adrenergic receptors in canine cerebral vasculature. Stroke 2:193–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Maroon JC, Nelson PB (1979) Hypovolemia in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage. Therapeutic implications. Neurosurgery 4:223–225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Martins AN, Doyle TF, Newby N, Kobrine AI, Ramirex A (1975) The effect of a simulated subarachnoid haemorrhage on cerebral blood flow in the monkey. Stroke 6:664–672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Mayberg MR, Houser OW, Sundt TM Jr (1978) Ultrastructural changes in feline arterial endothelium following subarachnoid haemorrhage. J Neurosurg 48:49–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Meyer JS, Denny-Brown D (1957) The cerebral collateral circulation (1) Factors in influencing collateral blood flow. Neurology 7:447–458PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Meyer JS, Gotoh F, Gilroy J et al. (1965) Improvement in brain oxygenation and clinical improvement in patients with stroke treatment with papaverine hydrochloride. JAMA 194:957–961PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Millikan GH (1975) Cerebral vasospasm and ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Arch Neurol 32:433–449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Mizukami M, Takemae T, Tazawa T, Kawase T, Matsuzaki T (1980) Value of computerized tomography in the prediction of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysm rupture. Neurosurgery 7:583–586PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Morawetz RB, de Girolami U, Ojemann RG, Marcoux W, Crowell RM (1978) Cerebral blood flow determined by hydrogen clearance during middle cerebral artery occlusion in unanaesthetised monkeys. Stroke 9:143–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Nagai H, Suzuki Y, Sugiura M, Noda S, Mabe H (1974) Experimental cerebral vasospasm. Part 1—Factors contributing to early spasm. J Neurosurg 41:285–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Neil-Dwyer G, Cruickshank J, Stott A, Brice J (1974) The urinary catecholamine and plasma Cortisol levels in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage. J Neurol Sci 22:375–382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Nibbelink DW, Torner JC, Henderson WG (1975) Intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid haemorrhage—a cooperative study. Antiflbrinolytic therapy in recent onset subarachnoid haemorrhage. Stroke 6:622–629PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Nonaka T, Watanabe S, Chigasaki H, Miyacka M, Ishu S (1979) Aetiology and treatment of vasospasm following subarachnoid haemorrhage. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 19:55–60Google Scholar
  74. Patten BM, Mandell J, Braun B et al. (1972) Double blind study of the effects of dexamethasone on acute stroke. Neurology 22:337–383Google Scholar
  75. Peerless SJ (1977) Comments on cerebral vasospasm. Neurosurgery 1:248Google Scholar
  76. Peerless SJ (1979) Pre- and post-operative management of cerebral aneurysms. Clin Neurosurg 26:209–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Peerless SJ, Griffiths JC (1972) Plasma catecholamines following subarachnoid haemorrhage. Ann R Coll Phys Surg Can 5:48–49Google Scholar
  78. Peerless SJ, Hunter I, Drake CG (1978) Structural changes in the human cerebral artery following subarachnoid haemorrhage and spasm. Stroke 9:103Google Scholar
  79. Pennink M, White RP, Crockarell JR, Robertson JT (1972) Role of prostaglandin F2 alpha in the genesis of experimental cerebral vasospasm—angiographic study in dogs. J Neurosurg 37:398–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Petruk KC, West GR, Marriott MR, Mclntyre JW, Overton TR, Weir BKA (1972) Cerebral blood flow following induced subarachnoid haemorrhage in the monkey. J Neurosurg 37:316–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Pickard JD, Matheson M, Patterson J, Wyper D (1980) Prediction of late ischaemic complications after cerebral aneurysm surgery by the intraoperative measurement of cerebral blood flow. J Neurosurg 53:305–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Pitts LH, MacPherson P, Wyper DJ, Jennett WB (1977) Cerebral blood flow, cerebral vasospasm and subarachnoid haemorrhage. Acta Neurol Scand 56 (Suppl 64): 334–335Google Scholar
  83. Pool J (1958) Cerebral vasospasm. N Engl J Med 259:1259–1264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Pritz MB, Giannotta SL, Kindt WG et al. (1978) Treatment of patients with neurological deficit associated with cerebral vasospasm by intravascular volume expansion. Neurosurgery 3:364–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Rice-Edwards JM, Bull B, Thompson J, Austin G (1975) Role of platelets in causation of cerebral vasospasm. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 38:828Google Scholar
  86. Richardson JTE (1976) Arterial spasm and recovery from subarachnoid haemorrhage. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 39:1134–1136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Robertson EG (1949) Cerebral lesions due to intracranial aneurysms. Brain 72:150–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Roy CS, Sherrington CS (1890) On the regulation of blood supply of the brain. J Physiol (Lond) 11:85–108Google Scholar
  89. Saito I, Ueda Y, Sano K (1977) Significance of vasospasm in the treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysm. J Neurosurg 47:412–429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Sano K, Saito I (1978) Timing and indications of surgery for ruptured intracranial aneurysm with regard to vasospasm. Acta Neurochir 41:49–60Google Scholar
  91. Schneck SA (1964) On the relationship between ruptured intracranial aneurysm and cerebral infarction. Neurology 14:691–702PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Sengupta RP (1975) Anatomical variations in the origin of the posterior cerebral artery demonstrated by carotid angiography and their significance in the direct surgical treatment of posterior communicating aneurysms. Neurochirurgia 18:33–42Google Scholar
  93. Shalit MN, Shimojyo S, Reinmuth OM (1967) Carbon dioxide and cerebral circulatoryy control. 1. The extra-vascular effect. Arch Neurol 17:298–303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Sharbrough FW, Messick JM, Sundt TM Jr (1973) Correlation of continuous electro-encephalograms with cerebral blood flow measurements during carotid endarterectomy. Stroke 4:674–683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Simeone FA, Ryan KG, Cotter JR et al (1968) Prolonged experimental cerebral vasospasm. J Neurosurg 29:357–366Google Scholar
  96. Simeone FA, Trepper PPJ, Brown DJ (1972) Cerebral blood flow evaluation of prolonged experimental vasospasm. J Neurosurg 37:302–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Skinhoj E, Paulson O (1970) Mechanism of action of amino—phylline upon cerebrovascular disorder. Acta Neurol Scand 46:129–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Strandgaard S, Olesen J, Skinhoj E, Lassen NA (1973) Autoregulation of brain circulation in severe arterial hypertension. Br Med J 1:507–510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Sundt TM, Onofrio BM, Merideth J (1973) Treatment of cerebral vasospasm from subarachnoid haemorrhage with isoproterenol and lidocaine hydrochloride. J Neurosurg 38:557–560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Suzuki J (1979) Cerebral vasospasm—prediction, prevention and protection. In: Pia HW, Langmaid C, Zierski J (eds) Cerebral aneurysms. Advances in diagnosis and therapy. Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 155–161Google Scholar
  101. Suzuki J, Yoshimoto T (1979) The effect of mannitol in prolongation of permissible occlusion time of cerebral arteries: Clinical data of aneurysm surgery. In: Suzuki J (ed) Cerebral aneurysms. Neuron, Tokyo, pp 330–337Google Scholar
  102. Suzuki S, Sobata E, Iwabuchi T (1981) Prevention of cerebral ischaemic symptoms in cerebral vasospasm with trapidil, an antagonist and selective synthesis inhibitor of thromboxane A2. Neurosurgery 9:679–685PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Symon L (1978) Disordered cerebrovascular physiology in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Acta Neurochir 41:7–22Google Scholar
  104. Symon L, Branston NM, Strong AJ (1976) Autoregulation in acute focal ischaemia—an experimental study. Stroke 7:547–554PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Symon L, Harris RJ, Branston NM (1982) Calcium ion and calcium ion antogagonist in ischaemia. Acta Neurochir 63:272–275Google Scholar
  106. Tani E, Yamagata S, Ito Y (1978) Intracellular granules and vesicles in prolonged cerebral vasospasm. J Neurosurg 48:179–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Van Breeman C, Farinas BR, Girba P et al. (1972) Excitation, contraction coupling in rabbit aorta—studied by Lanth—arum method for measuring cellular calcium inflow. Circ Res 30:44–45Google Scholar
  108. Voldby B, Enevoldsen EM (1982) Intracranial pressure changes following aneurysm rupture. Part I. Clinical and angiographic correlation. J Neurosurg 56:186–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Watts C (1977) Reserpine and cerebral vasospasm. Stroke 8:112–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Weir B, Erasmo R, Miller J et al. (1970) Vasospasm in response to repeated subarachnoid haemorrhage in the monkey. J Neurosurg 33:395–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Weir B, Grace M, Hansen J, Rothberg C (1978) Time course of vasospasm in man. J Neurosurg 48:173–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Weir BKA, Okwuasava SK, Cook DA, Krueger CA (1980) Pharmacology of vasospasm—effects of various agents including blood on isolated cerebral artery. In: Wilkins RH (ed) Cerebral arterial spasm. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 237–243Google Scholar
  113. White RP (1980) Overt view of the pharmacology of vasospasm. In: Wilkins RH (ed) Cerebral arterial spasm. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 229–236Google Scholar
  114. Wilkins RH (1973) Attempts at treatment of intracranial arterial spasm in animals and human beings. Surg Neurol 1:148–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Wilkins RH (1979) Proceedings of the second international workshop on cerebral vasospasm. Amsterdam, July 11–14Google Scholar
  116. Wilkins RH (1980) Attempted prevention or treatment of intracranial arterial spasm—a survey. Neurosurgery 6:198–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Wilkins RH, Alexander JA, Odom GL (1968) Intracranial arterial spasm—a clinical analysis. J Neurosurg 29:121–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Wise G, Sutter R, Burkholder J (1972) The treatment of brain ischaemia with vasopressor drugs. Stroke 3:135–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Yamamoto YL, Feindel W, Wolfe LS, Katoh H, Hodge CP (1972) Experimental asoconstriction of cerebral arteries by prostaglandins. J Neurosurg 37:385–397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Zervas NT (1979) Vasospasm—up-date. Clin Neurosurg 26:643–656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Zervas NT, Kuwayama A, Rosoff CB, Salzman ES (1973) Cerebral arterial spasm. Modification by inhibition of platelet function. Arch Neurol 28:400–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Zervas NT, Liszezak TM, Mayberg MR, Black P McL (1982) Cerebro—spinal fluid may nourish cerebral vessels through pathways in the adventitia that may be analogous to systemic vasa vasorum. J Neurosurg 56:475–481PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Zingesser LH, Schechter MM, Dexter J et al. (1968) On the significance of spasm associated with rupture of a cerebral aneurysm. The relationship between spasm as noted angiographically and regional blood flow determinations. Arch Neurol 18:520–528PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. P. Sengupta
    • 1
  • V. L. McAllister
    • 2
  1. 1.Newcastle General HospitalNewcastle upon TyneUK
  2. 2.Regional Neurological CentreNewcastle General HospitalNewcastle upon TyneUK

Personalised recommendations