Advertisement

Designers pp 217-232 | Cite as

Event Scales and Social Dimensions in Design Practice

  • David F. Radcliffe

Abstract

One of the difficulties in comparing results across empirical design studies is the disparity in duration of the events studied and different levels of social complexity involved. This paper proposes a schema that characterises a piece of design work according to the event scale of interest (the duration of the event that you are paying attention to) plus the corresponding social dimension (the degree of socio- cultural complexity of the work setting). A Social Dimension - Event Scale framework is then constructed and used to map a diverse range of design studies conducted in natural settings. The same schema is used to highlight the use of physical objects including prototypes as carriers of design knowledge. Three types of prototype are described; impromptu, proof-of-concept and embodiment. The schema is also used to describe the nature of tacit knowledge. Three domains of tacit design knowledge - technical, commercial and cultural - are identified.

Keywords

Event Scale Tacit Knowledge Social Dimension Design Practice Design Work 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Hales C. 1987: Analysis of the Engineering Design Process in an Industrial Context. Grant Hill Pub., Eastleigh.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bucciarelli L.L. 1988: An Ethnographic Perspective on Engineering Design. Design Studies 9, 159–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Minneman S.L. 1991: A Social Construction of a Technical Reality. PhD Thesis, Stanford University.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Radcliffe D.F., Slattery P. 1992: Emergence, Learning and Interaction in a Cross- Discipline Design Team. DETC 92, ASME DE Vol 42, 123–130.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cuff D. 1991: The Story of Practice. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Radcliffe D.F., Harrison P. 1994: Transforming Design Practice in a Small Manufacturing Enterprise. DETC 94, ASME Vol DE-68, 91–98.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cross N., Cross A.C. 1996: Winning by Design: the Methods of Gordon Murray, Racing Car Designer, Design Studies 17, 91–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ullman D.G., Dietterich T.G., Stauffer, L. 1988: A Model of the Mechanical Engineering Design Process Based on Empirical Data. AIEDM 2, 33–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tang J., Leifer L.J. 1991: An Observational Methodology for Studying Group Design Activity. Res. Eng. Des. 2, 209–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Radcliffe D.F., Lee T.Y. 1990: Models of Visual Thinking in Novice Designers. Design Theory and Methodology, ASME, Vol. DE-27, 145–152.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Christiaans H., Dorst K. 1992: An Empirical Study into Design Thinking. In: N. Cross et al. (ed.) Research in Design Thinking. Pub. Delft University Press, pp. 119 - 126.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cross N., Christiaans H., Dorst K. 1996: Analysing Design Activity. John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schon D.A. 1983: The Reflective Practitioner, How Professionals Think in Action. Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Petroski H. 1985: To Engineer is Human: The Role of Failure in Successful Design, Macmillan, London.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Vincenti W.G. 1990: What Engineers Knows and How they Know It: Analytical Studies from Aeronautical History. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ferguson E.S. 1992: Engineering and the Mind’s Eye. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shute N. 1954: Slide Rule, Autobiography of an Engineer. Heinemann, Melbourne.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Frankenberger E., Auer P. 1997: Standardized Observation of Team-work in Design, Research in Engineering Design 9, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Barker R., Harding A. 1992: Automobile Design: Twelve Great Designers and their Work. SAE, Dearborn, Mich.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Smith R.E. 1993: Psychology. West Publishing Co., St Paul, Minn.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kessing R.M. 1981: Cultural Anthropology: A Contemporary Prespective, CBS Publishing, New York.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hammersley M., Atkinson P. 1983: Ethonography: Principles and Practice, Tavistock Pub., London.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yin R.K. 1994: Case Study Research: Design and Methods. 2nd edn. Sage Pub., Thousand Oaks, Calif.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Solomon F.L. 1997: Towards a Philosophy of Engineering. PhD thesis, The University of Queensland, Australia.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Holt J.E. 1996: On the Nature of Mechanical Engineering - an Engineering Ethos, Int. J. Eng. Ed., 12, 333–338.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Buchanan M. 1995: Approach to Engineering Innovation in Agriculture. Trans. Mech. Eng., 20, 293–298.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Horton G.I. 1997: Prototyping and Mechanical Engineering. PhD Thesis, The University of Queensland, Australia.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Logan G.D., Radcliffe D.F. 1997: Role of Artefact in Rehabilitation Engineering Design. Proc RESNA 97.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Radcliffe D.F. 1996: Exploring the Principles of Concurrent Engineering. In: Manufacturing Education for the 21st Century. SME, Vol III, pp. 233–236.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lloyd P. 1998: This volume, pp.113–123.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hacker W., Sachse P., Schroda F. 1998: This volume, pp. 205–216.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Polanyi M. 1966: The Tacit Knowing. Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, London.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Schön D.A. 1983: The Reflective Practitioner. Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Barkan P., Iansiti M. 1993: Prototyping: A Tool for Rapid Learning in Product Development. Concurrent Engineering: Research and Applications 1, 125–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Harrison S., Minnemen S.L. 1994: A Bike in Hand: a Study of 3D Objects in Design. In: N.Cross, H. Christiaans & K. Dorst (eds) Analysing Design Activity. John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 417–436.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wagner R.K. 1987: Tacit knowledge in Everyday Intelligent Behaviour. J Business and Psychology 1, 301–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • David F. Radcliffe

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations