Determination of Operating Reserve

  • E. Mariani
  • S. S. Murthy
Part of the Advances in Industrial Control book series (AIC)


Operating reserve is required to meet the following contingencies:
  • rapid fluctuations in demand or outputs of generating sets

  • unexpected reduction in the output of generating plant (partial outages)

  • sudden loss of generation

  • under-estimation of demand or unexpected increase in demand

  • unexpected constraints in transmission plant.


Interconnected System Thermal Unit Mean Time Between Failure Spinning Reserve Primary Reserve 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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  1. 1.
    K.W. Edwin and H.D. Kochs of CIGRE Study Committee No. 32, Electra No. 76.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Mariani
    • 1
  • S. S. Murthy
    • 2
  1. 1.ENEL Div TransmissioneNapoliItaly
  2. 2.Power & EnergyJayanagar, BangaloreIndia

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