Imaging of the Spine and Spinal Cord

  • J. S. Lapointe


Between 1896, when Roentgen discovered X-rays and 1975, when spinal computed tomography (CT) became available thanks to improvements to Hounsfield’s 1971 invention, the spinal cord had to be studied by indirect means. Plain film radiography, and linear and complex motion tomography were used to image the bony spine. The outline of the spinal cord was first seen with pneumomyelography, after Dandy outlined the medulla with air in 1919 but a safe opaque contrast medium for myelography was only introduced in 1940. This iophendylate (Pantopaque) was replaced by non-ionic water-soluble metrizamide (Amipaque) in 1973. Spinal angiography, since its introduction by Djindjian in 1963, has had a limited role in the investigation of vascular lesions of the spinal cord.


Cervical Spine Spinal Stenosis Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis Epidural Fibrosis Spinal Angiography 
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  • J. S. Lapointe

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