The role of health professionals: Caring for the victims
Despite the heroic efforts at tobacco control, millions of people will die from tobacco- related diseases within the next decade (Murray & Lopez, 1996). Although almost unknown as a serious public health problem at the beginning of the century, tobacco will become a major cause of preventable death in the world in the next millennium (Peto et al., 1994). One of the most lethal forms of tobacco-related disease is lung cancer. It is the tenth leading cause of death in the world today and in the next 20 years is projected to become the fifth leading cause. Lung cancer is now the first cause of cancer-related death in the world, and its incidence is increasing in developing countries. Currently, 945 000 people die from lung cancer every year, and the number of deaths from lung cancer is projected to double by the year 2020, resulting in 2.4 million deaths, largely because of an 82% increase in the number in developing countries. In comparison with other diseases, lung cancer will move up in the rank order of projected years of life lost from premature death, from No. 22 to No. 12 in the next 25 years, and for disability-adjusted-life years (an indication of premature death and living with disability) will move from No. 33 to No. 15. In developing regions, the impact of lung cancer is escalating, and this disease is already the 48th cause of disability-adjusted-life years (Murray & Lopez, 1996).
KeywordsFatigue Nicotine Smoke Hyde Cough
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Faller, H., Schilling & Lang, H. 9!((%0 Causal attribution and adaptation among lung cancer patients. J. Psychsom. Res., 39,619–627Google Scholar
- Fiore, M.C., Bailey, W.C., Cohen, S.J. et al. (1996) Smoking Cessation(Clinical Practice Guideline No. 18, Publication No. 96-0692. 60), Rockville, Maryland, US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Health Care Policy and ResearchGoogle Scholar
- McVie, J.G. (1996) Non-small lung cancer: Meta-analysis of efficacy of chemotherapy. Semin. Oncol., 23 (Suppl. 7), 12 – 16Google Scholar
- Murray, C.J.L. & Lopez, A.D. (1996) The Global Burden of Disease, Vol. 1, Boston, Harvard University Press, pp. 117–200, 247 – 294, 325–396, 417Google Scholar
- Peto, R., Lopez, A.D., Boreham, J. et al. (1994) Mortality in Relation to Smoking in Developed Countries, 1950-2000: Indirect Estimates from National Vital Statistics, New York, Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
- Richardson, G.E., Tucker, M.A., Venzon, D.J., Linnoila, I., Phelps, R., Phares, J.C., Edison, M. & Ihde, D.C. (1993) Smoking cessation after successful treatment of small-cell lung cancer is associated with fewer smoking-related second primary cancers. Ann. Intern. Med., 119, 383 – 390PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sarna, L. (1993b) Correlates of symptom distress in women with lung cancer. Cancer Pract., 1, 21 – 28Google Scholar
- Sarna, L. (1995) Smoking behaviors of women after diagnosis with lung cancer. Image, 27, 35 – 41Google Scholar
- Strauss, G., DeCamp, M., Dibiccaro, E., Richards, W., Harpole, D., Healey, E. & Sugarbaker, D. (1995) Lung cancer diagnosis is being made with increasing frequency in former cigarette smokers. Proc. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol., 14, 1106Google Scholar
- US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (1964) Smoking and Health. Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service(PHS pub.No. 1103 ), Washington DC: US Government Printing OfficeGoogle Scholar
- WHO (1990) Report of a WHO Expert Committee: Cancer Pain Relief and Palliative Care (Technical Report Series 804), GenevaGoogle Scholar