Advertisement

Studies of Fetal Growth in Animals

  • Clare Steyn
  • Mark Hanson

Abstract

Fetal growth is influenced by environmental factors such as maternal size and health, nutrient availability, altitude and ambient temperature. Internal factors such as genetics (see Ch. 2) and the growth potential of the different organs and tissues also determine fetal size at various stages of differentiation. Thus there are so-called “critical periods” of development for each organ system. Influences that interfere with development during one of these critical periods in the early development of an organism may lead to a permanent change in the physiology of that system, resulting in what has come to be called “programming”. Thus, diseases that manifest themselves during neonatal and adult life may have been programmed during the in utero life of an individual (see [1] for review).

Keywords

Growth Restriction Fetal Growth Intrauterine Growth Restriction Late Gestation Placental Weight 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Barker DJP. Mothers, babies and health in later life, 2nd edn. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1998.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fowden AL, Coulson RL, Silver M. Endocrine regulation of tissue glucose-6-phosphotase activity in the fetal sheep during late gestation. Endocrinology 1990;126:2823–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fowden AL, Apatu RSK, Silver M. The glucogenic capacity of the fetal pig: developmental regulation by Cortisol. Exp Physiol, 1995;80:457–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fowden AL. Endocrine regulation of fetal growth. Reprod Fertil Dev, 1995;7:351–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fowden AL. Fetal metabolism and energy balance. In: Thorburn GD, Harding R, editors, Textbook of fetal physiology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 70–82. Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Battaglia FC. New concepts in fetal and placental amino acid metabolism. J Animal Sci 1992;70:3258–63.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fowden AL. Nutrient requirements for normal fetal growth and metabolism. In: Hanson, MA, Spencer, JAD, Rodeck, CH, editors, Fetus and neonate: physiology and clinical applications, vol 3: Growth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995;31–56.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Han VKM, Hill DJ. Growth factors in fetal growth. In: Thorburn GD & Harding R, editors, Textbook of Fetal Physiology, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994;48–69.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Han VKM & Fowden AL. (1994). Paracrine regulation of fetal growth. In: Ward RHT, Smith SK, Donnai D. editors, Early fetal growth and development. London: RCOG Press, 1994;275–91.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Parkes MJ. (1988). Endocrine factors in fetal growth. In: Fetal and Neonatal Growth, ed. Cockburn F. pp. 33–48. John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bassett JM. Glucose and fetal growth derangement. In: Hanson MA, Spencer JAD, Rodeck CH, editors, Fetus and Neonate. Physiology and cinical applications, vol 3: Growth. Cambridge- Cambridge University Press, 1995;223–254.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bassett JM. Glucose and fetal growth derangement. In: Hanson MA, Spencer JAD, Rodeck CH, editors, Fetus and Neonate. Physiology and cinical applications, vol 3: Growth. Cambridge- Cambridge University Press, 1995;223–254.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Milner RDG, Gluckma PD. Regulation of intrauterine growth. In: Gluckman PD, Heymann MA, editors, Pediatrics and Perinatology. The Scientific Basis. London: Arnold, 1996;284–9.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Woodali SM, Breier BH, Johnston BM, Gluckman PD. A model of intrauterine growth retardation caused by chronic maternal undernutrition in the rat: effects on the somatotrophic axis and postnatal growth. J Endocrinol. 1996;150:231–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Symonds ME. Pregnancy, parturition and neonatal development: interactions between nutrition and thyroid hormones. Proc Nutr Soc. 1995;54:329–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fowden AL, Mijovic J, Silver M. The effects of Cortisol on hepatic and renal gluconeogenic enzyme activities in the sheep fetus during late gestation. J Endocrinol, 1992;137:213–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dodic M, May CN, Wintour EM, Coghla, JP. An early prenatal exposure to excess glucocorticoid leads to hypertensive offspring in sheep. Clin Sci, 1998;94(2):149–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Levitt NS, Lindsay RS, Holmes MC, Seckl JR. Dexamethasone in the last week of pregnancy attenuates hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor gene expression and elevates blood pressure in the adult offspring in the rat. Neuroendocrinology, 1996;64(6):412–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Langley-Evans SC. Hypertension induced by fetal exposure to maternal low protein diet, in the rat, is prevented by pharmacological blockade of maternal glucocorticoid synthesis. J Hyperten 1997;15(5):537–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Blim WF, Gluckman PD. Insulin-like growth factors. In: Gluckman ,PD, Heyman n MA, editors, Pediatrics and perinatology. The scientific basis. London: Arnold, 1996;314–23.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Li J, Saunders JC, Fowden AL, Dauncey M J, Gilmour RS. Transcriptional regulation of insulin-like growth factor-II gene expression by Cortisol in fetal sheep during late gestation. J biol Chem 1998;273(17):10586–593.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Engström W, Heath JK. Growth factors in early embryonic development. In: Cockburn F, editors, Fetal and Neonatal Growth, Chichester: John Wiley, 1998; 11–32.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hill DJ, Han VKM. Role of growth factors in tissue development. In: Gluckman PD, Heymann MA, editors, Pediatrics and Perinatology. The scientific basis, London: Arnold, 1996;279–83.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Brownlie J, Hooper LB, Thompson I, Collins ME. Maternal recognition of fetal infection with bovine virus diarrhaea virus (BVDV) —the bovine pestivirus. Clin Diagn Virol, 1998;10:141–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yoon BH, Romero R, Jim JK, Maymon E, Gomez R, Mazor M, et al. An increase in fetal plasma Cortisol but not dehydroepiandosterone sulfate is followed by the onset of preterm labor in patients with preterm premature rupture of the membranes. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 1988;179:1107–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bell AW, McBride BW, Slepatis R, Early RJ, Currie WB. Chronic heat stress and prenatal development in sheep: I. Conceptus growth and maternal plasma hormones and metabolites. J Am Sci, 1989;67:3289–299. Google Scholar
  27. Yates JRW. Genetics of fetal and postnatal growth. In: Cockburn F, editors, Perinatal practice, vol 5. Fetal and neonatal growth. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 1998;1–10. Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Walton A, Hammond J. (1938). The maternal effects on growth and confirmation in Shire horse- Shetland pony crosses. J of Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 125:311–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Allen WR, Steward M, Ball M, Fowden A, Ousey JC, Rossdale PD. (1998). The influence of maternal size on fetal and postnatal development in the horse. Proceedings of the Dorothy Russel Havemeyer Foundation; Sidney, Australia, 9.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mellor DJ, Mathieson IC. (1979). Daily changes in the curved crown-rump length of individual sheep fetuses during the last 60 days of pregnancy and effects of different levels of maternal nutrition. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology. 64:119–131.Google Scholar
  31. Robson SC, Chang TC. Measurement of human fetal growth. In: Hanson MA, Spencer JAD, Rodeck CH, editors, Fetus and neonate: Physiology and clinical applications, Vol 3: Growth Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995;297–325. Google Scholar
  32. Anjari JE, Del Campo CH, Guerra FA, Del Campo MR. (1996). Ultrasonographic estimation of gestational age in alpaca. Proceedings of 23rd Annual Meeting of Fetal and Neonatal Physiological Society, Africa, Chile. Google Scholar
  33. Hanson MA. (1986). Peripheral chemoreceptor function before and after birth. In: Respiratory Control and Lung Development in the Fetus and Newborn. Eds. BM Johnston 8c P Gluckman. Perinatology Press, pp. 311–330. Google Scholar
  34. Gluckman PD, Heyman M. (1996) Pediatrics and perinatology: the scientific basis. E. Arnold. Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ward RHT, Smith SK, Donnai D. In: editors. Early fetal growth and development. London: RCOG. 1975.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    McCance RA, Widdowson EM. (1974). The determinants of growth and form. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London (Biological), 185:1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Osofsky HJ. Relationships between nutrition during pregnancy and subsequent infant and child development. Obstetrl and Gynecol Survey, 1975;30(4):227–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hoet JJ, Hanson MA. (1999). Intrauterine nutrition: Its importance during critical periods for cardiovascular and endocrine development. J. Physiol, (in press).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hanson MA, Hawkins P, Ozaki T, Steyn C, Mathews SG, Noakes D, Poston L. (1999). Effects of experimental dietary manipulation during early pregnancy on cardiovascular and endocrine function in fetal sheep and young lambs. In: Fetal Programming: Influences on development and disease in later life, 36th RCOG Scientific Study Group, RCOG Press (in press).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Langley, Jackson, (1994). Increased systolic blood pressure in adult rats induced by fetal exposure to maternal low protein diets. Clin Sci, 1994;86(2):217–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. anson MA, Ozaki T, Nishina H, Poston L (1999). In: editors, Barker DJP, Lenfant C, Marcel Dekker, Fetal Origins of Cardiovascular Disease. New York:. Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Holemans K, Gerber R, Meurrens K, Spitz B, Declerck F, Poston L, et al. (1999). Maternal malnutrition in the rat affects vascular function but not blood pressure of adult offspring. Br J Nutr (in press).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Stein Z, Susser M (1975a). The Dutch famine, 1944–1945, and the reproductive process. I. Effects on six indices at birth. Pediatr Res. 9:70–6.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Stein Z, Susser M (1975b). The Dutch famine, 1944–1945, and the reproductive process. II. Interrelations of caloric rations and six indices at birth. Pediatrc Res. 9:76–83.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Harding JE, Johnston BM. (1995). Nutrition and fetal growth. Reproduction, Fertility and Development 7:539–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    McCrabb GJ, Egan AR, Hosking BJ (1991). Maternal undernutrition during mid-pregnancy in sheep. Placental size and its relationship to calcium transfer during late pregnancy. Br J Nutr. 65:157–68.Google Scholar
  47. DeBarro TM, Owens JA, Earl CR, Robinson JS (1992). Mating weight influences the effect of mid- pregnancy nutrition on placental growth in the sheep. Proc Austr Nutr Soc, pp. 7403. Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Block BS, Schlafer DH, Wentworth RA, Kreitzer LA, Nathanielsz PW. (1990). Regional blood flow distribution in fetal sheep with intrauterine growth retardation produced by decreased umbilical placental perfusion. J Dev Physiol 13:81–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Detmer A, Gu W, Carter AM (1991). The blood supply to the heart and brain in the growth retarded guinea pig fetus. Deve Physiol 15:153–60.Google Scholar
  50. Harding JE. (1994). The role of nutrition and pre-natal growth development. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Veterinary Perinatology. Cambridge, UK. Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Creasy RK, Barrett CT, Deswiet M, Kahanpää KV, Rudolph AM (1972). Experimental intrauterine growth retardation in the sheep. Am J Obstetr Gynecol 112(4):566–73.Google Scholar
  52. Murotsuki J, Challis JRG, Han VKM, Fraher LJ, Gagnon R (1997). Chronic fetal embolization and hypoxemia cause hypertension and myocardial hypertrophy in fetal sheep. Am J Phvsiol 272-(1 pt 2): R201–7. Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Jacobs R, Robinson RS, Owens JA, Falconer J, Webster MED (1988a). The effect of prolonged hypobaric hypoxia on growth of fetal sheep. J Dev Physiol 10:97–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Tanaka M, Natori M, Ishimoto H, Miyazaki T, Kobayashi T, Nozawa S. (1994). Experimental growth retardation produced by transient period of uteroplacental ischemia in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rates. Am J Obstet & Gynecol 171:1231–1234.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Krüger H, Arias-Stella J (1970) The placenta and the newborn infant at high altitudes. Am J Obst Gynecol 106(4):586–91.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Beischer NA, Sivasamboo R, Vohra S, Silpisornkosal S, Reid S (1970). Placental hypertrophy in severe pregnancy anaemia. Obstetr Gynaecol Br Common 77:398–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Bacon BJ, Bilbert RD, Kaufmann P, Smith AD, Trevino FT, Longo LD. (1984). Placental anatomy and diffusing capacity in guinea pigs following long-term maternal hypoxia. Placenta 5:475–488.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Jacobs R, Owens JA, Falconer J, Webster MED, Robinson JS (1988). Changes in metabolite concentration in fetal sheep subjected to prolonged hypobaric hypoxia. Deve Physiol 10:113–21.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Godfrey KM, Redman CWG, Barker DJP, Osmond C (1991). The effect of maternal anaemia and iron deficiency on the ratio of fetal weight to placental weight. Br Obstetr Gynaecol 98:886–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Owens JA, Owens PC, Robinson JS (1995). Experimental restriction of fetal growth. In: editors, Hanson MA, Spencer JAD, Rodeck CH. Fetus and neonate: physiology and clinical applications. vol 3: Growth Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995; 139–75. Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kramer MS, Olivier M, McLean FH, Dougherty GE, Willis DM, Usher RD. (1990). Determinants of fetal growth and body proportionality. Pediatrics, 86:18–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Antonov AN. Children born during the siege of Leningrad in 1942. Pediatr 1947;30:250–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Winick M (1969). Malnutrition and brain development. Pediatr 74(5):667–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Desai M, Crowther NJ, Ozanne SE, Lucas A, Hales CN. (1995). Adult glucose and lipid metabolism may be programmed during fetal life. Biochem Soc Trans 23(2):331–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kamitomo M, Alonso JG, Okai T, Longo LD, Gilbert RD. Effects of long-term, high-altitude hypo- xaemia on ovine fetal cardiac output and blood flow distribution. Am Obstetr Gynaecol 1993;169:701–7.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Bauer MK, Breier BH, Harding JE, Veldhuis JD, Gluckman PD. (1995). The fetal somatrophic axis during long term maternal undernutrition in sheep: evidence for nutritional regulation in utero Endocrinology 136:1250–1257.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gagnon R, Challis J, Johnston L, Fraher L (1994). Fetal endocrine responses to chronic placental embolization in the late-gestation ovine fetus. Am Obstetr Gynaecol 1994;170:929–38.Google Scholar
  68. Mellor DJ, Murray L (1981). Effects of placental weight and maternal nutrition on the growth rates of individual fetuses in single and twin bearing ewes during late pregnancy. Res Veterin Sci 1981;30:198–204. Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Owens JA, Falconer J, Robinson JS. (1986). Effect of restriction of placental growth on umbilical and uterine blood flows. Am. J. Physiol 250:R427–434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Wheeler T, O’Brien PMS (Eds.) (1999). Fetal Programming: Influences on development and disease in later life. RCOG Press London (in press).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clare Steyn
  • Mark Hanson

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations