Genes, Chromosomes and IUGR

  • John Wolstenholme
  • Chris Wright


The growth potential of the fetus is determined by genetic factors, but fulfilment of this potential is dependent on maternal and environmental factors, as dis­cussed in Ch. 4 [1,2]. Winick [3] proposed the model that envisaged early fetal growth (including the embryonic phase and organogenesis) as predominantly a consequence of cell proliferation (hyperplasia), the latter part of pregnancy (from about 32 weeks) as a period of cell growth (hypertrophy), and an intermediate phase with significant contributions from both hyperplasia and hypertrophy. Agents that damage the fetus during the first trimester phase of cell proliferation may reduce the cell population and permanently impede growth potential, while those acting in late pregnancy reduce cell size, with the likelihood of later catch-up growth [4].


Fetal Growth Abnormal Cell Fetal Growth Restriction Inner Cell Mass Intrauterine Growth Restriction 
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  • John Wolstenholme
  • Chris Wright

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