As already indicated in the previous chapter, rapid technological progress in the field of information technology resulted in the appearance of new machines on the market. These are essentially characterized by a very modular architecture, and high component specialization. One single machine can carry several active or intelligent components in the same way as the CPU, assembled around a bus. These components may be specialized processors (floating computation coprocessors, direct memory access controllers etc.) or couplers specialized in the control of exchanges between given peripherals (disk controller, video controller, controller of input/output either in series or in parallel, network controller etc.). Each component has the ability to complete the task it has with relative autonomy, and synchronization and communication between the processor and the rest of the components is largely carried out by the exchange of signals or interrupts via the control bus. The data bus and address bus are used to carry out data transfer operations.
KeywordsLiner Sorting Encapsulation Nism Coupler
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