Actuators and Sensors
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In this chapter, two basic robot components are treated: actuators and sensors. In the first part, the features of an actuating system are presented in terms of the power supply, power amplifier, servomotor and transmission. In view of their control versatility, two types of servomotors are used; namely, electric servomotors for actuating the joints of small and medium size manipulators, and hydraulic servomotors for actuating the joints of large size manipulators. The models describing the input/output relationship for such servomotors are derived. In the second part, proprioceptive sensors are presented which allow measurements of the quantities characterizing the internal state of the manipulator; namely, encoders and resolvers for joint position measurement, tachometers for joint velocity measurement; further, exteroceptive sensors are presented including force sensors for end-effector force measurement and vision sensors for object image measurements when the manipulator interacts with the environment.
KeywordsPower Amplifier Robot Manipulator Block Scheme Driving Torque Incremental Encoder
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