This chapter considers how the information emanating from a source can be encoded, so that it can later be decoded unambiguously and without delay. These two requirements lead to the concepts of uniquely decodable and instantaneous codes. We shall find necessary and sufficient conditions for a code to have these properties, we shall see how to construct such codes, and we shall prove Kraft’s and McMillan’s inequalities, which essentially say that such codes exist if and only if they have sufficiently long code-words.
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