Design Principles for Achieving High-Performance Submicron Digital Technologies

  • Edward F. Fredkin
  • Tommaso Toffoli


Historical note. The present paper constitutes the “Project Description” section of a one-year proposal submitted to DARPA in November 1978 and funded shortly thereafter. Though never formally published, this DARPA proposal was widely circulated and played a seminal role; specifically, it originated the concepts of “ballistic computation” and “virtually nondissipative computation”. As interest in low-power circuitry grows, the techniques presented here are being rediscovered, extended, and utilized.


Logic Gate Light Guide Logic Network Output Line Integrate Optic 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward F. Fredkin
  • Tommaso Toffoli

There are no affiliations available

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