Human Exposure, Biomarkers, and Fate of Organotins in the Environment

  • Hussein K. OkoroEmail author
  • Olalekan S. Fatoki
  • Folahan A. Adekola
  • Bhekumusa J. Ximba
  • Reinette G. Snyman
  • Beatrice Opeolu
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 213)


Organotin compounds (OTCs) are organic derivatives of tin (Sn4+) and are characterized by the presence of covalent bonds between three carbon atoms and a tin atom. The organotins are designated as mono-, di-, tri-, or tetra-organotin compounds and have the general formula (n-C4H9), Sn–X, where X is an anion or a group linked covalently through a hetero-atom (Dubey and Roy 2003; Okoro et al. 2011). Organotin pollution in the aquatic environment is of global concern; two triorganotin compound groups, the tributyltins and triphenyltins, are toxic to aquatic life (Fent 1996) and are used worldwide not only as biocides in antifouling paints but also as preserving agents for wood and timber, and as agricultural fungicides. These uses result in direct release to water, with consequential uptake and accumulation in aquatic fauna (Harino et al. 2000).


Marine Invertebrate International Maritime Organization Organotin Compound Antifouling Paint Finless Porpoise 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors wish to thank the management of Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town, South Africa for financial support. H.K. Okoro also acknowledges University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria, for supplementation staff development award.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hussein K. Okoro
    • 1
    Email author
  • Olalekan S. Fatoki
    • 1
  • Folahan A. Adekola
    • 2
  • Bhekumusa J. Ximba
    • 1
  • Reinette G. Snyman
    • 3
  • Beatrice Opeolu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied SciencesCape Peninsula University of TechnologyCape TownSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of IlorinIlorinNigeria
  3. 3.Department of Biodiversity and Conservation, Faculty of Applied SciencesCape Peninsula University of TechnologyCape TownSouth Africa

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