Medical Imaging in the Diagnosis of Osteoporosis and Estimation of the Individual Bone Fracture Risk

Chapter
Part of the Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering book series (BIOMEDICAL)

Abstract

Osteoporosis is a degenerative disease of the bone. In an advanced state, bone weakened by osteoporosis may fracture spontaneously with debilitating consequences. Beginning osteoporosis can be treated with exercise and calcium/vitamin D supplement, whereas osteoclast-inhibiting drugs are used in advanced stages. Choosing the proper treatment requires accurate diagnosis of the degree of osteoporosis. The most commonly used measurement of bone mineral content or bone mineral density provides a general orientation, but is insufficient as a predictor for load fractures or spontaneous fractures. There is wide agreement that the averaging nature of the density measurement does not take into account the microarchitectural deterioration, and imaging methods that provide a prediction of the load-bearing quality of the trabecular network are actively investigated. Studies have shown that X-ray projection images, computed tomography (CT) images, and magnetic resonance images (MRI) contain texture information that relates to the trabecular density and connectivity. In this chapter, image analysis methods are presented which allow to quantify the degree of microarchitectural deterioration of trabecular bone and have the potential to predict the load-bearing capability of bone.

Keywords

Entropy Anisotropy Attenuation Osteoporosis Fluoride 

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of GeorgiaAthensGeorgia
  2. 2.California State University Channel IslandsCamarilloUSA

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