Counterflow Model for FDS+Evac Simulations
We present a new method for modeling counterflow situations in crowds. Agents, describing individual pedestrians, are set to avoid the moving directions where there is counterflow and prefer the directions with forward flow. In dense counterflow situations, people tend to move shoulder first to occupy less space in the moving direction. If the elliptical cross-section of a human body is considered in a crowd model, the rotational positions in which the agents move affect the counterflow. In our model, agents try to rotate their bodies in certain counterflow situations to move shoulder first. The model is implemented in the FDS+Evac simulation software. Test simulations show that it is able to create rather realistic simulations of counterflow.
KeywordsInternational Maritime Organization Rotational Position Forward Flow Fire Dynamics Simulator Crowd Density
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
This work has been funded by the VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation, the Finnish Fire Protection Fund, the Ministry of the Environment, and the Academy of Finland.
- 3.Pelechano, N., Allbeck, J., and Badler, N.: Controlling Individual Agents in High-Density Crowd Simulation. In: Proceedings of the 2007 ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics symposium on computer animation, 99-108 (2007)Google Scholar
- 4.Korhonen, T., Hostikka, S., Heliövaara, S., Ehtamo, H., and Matikainen, K.: FDS+Evac: Evacuation Module for Fire Dynamics Simulator. In: Proceedings of the Interflam2007: 11th International Conference on Fire Science and Engineering, Interscience Communications Limited, London, UK, 1443-1448 (2007)Google Scholar
- 5.Hostikka, S., Korhonen, T., Paloposki, T., Rinne, T., Matikainen, K., and Heliövaara, S.: Development and Validation of FDS+Evac for Evacuation Simulations, Project Summary Report, VTT Research Notes 2421, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (2007)Google Scholar
- 6.Korhonen, T., Hostikka, S.: Fire Dynamics Simulator with Evacuation: FDS+Evac – Technical Reference and User’s Guide, VTT Working Papers 119, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland (2009)Google Scholar
- 7.Guidelines for Evacuation Analyses for new and Existing Passenger Ships, MSC/Circ. 1238, International Maritime Organization, London, UK (2007)Google Scholar