Counterflow Model for FDS+Evac Simulations

  • S. Heliövaara
  • T. Korhonen
Conference paper


We present a new method for modeling counterflow situations in crowds. Agents, describing individual pedestrians, are set to avoid the moving directions where there is counterflow and prefer the directions with forward flow. In dense counterflow situations, people tend to move shoulder first to occupy less space in the moving direction. If the elliptical cross-section of a human body is considered in a crowd model, the rotational positions in which the agents move affect the counterflow. In our model, agents try to rotate their bodies in certain counterflow situations to move shoulder first. The model is implemented in the FDS+Evac simulation software. Test simulations show that it is able to create rather realistic simulations of counterflow.


International Maritime Organization Rotational Position Forward Flow Fire Dynamics Simulator Crowd Density 
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This work has been funded by the VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation, the Finnish Fire Protection Fund, the Ministry of the Environment, and the Academy of Finland.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Systems Analysis Laboratory, Aalto UniversityAaltoFinland
  2. 2.VTT Technical Research Centre of FinlandEspooFinland

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