Assessing Crowd Dynamics and Spectator Safety in Seated Area at a Football Stadium
This paper presents a study at the Manchester United Football Stadiumat Old Trafford, UK. The purpose of the study was to assess the safety risks associated with spectators standing in an all-seated stadium. Information gathering was a key part of the study; this paper looks at the information gathering exercises undertaken and how they contributed to the risk assessment. It also presents some of the key study findings. It may not be immediately apparent that standing in a stadium that is not overcrowded could be an issue. But there are in fact a variety of movements and behavioral factors involved when people stand. It is these movements and behaviors and their interactions with the physical environment that was our focus of investigation. Overall, the study has found that the risk of standing varies depending on the situation and the physical design of the seated area. There are a number of risk factors involved; we believe that many of them can be controlled through stadium design and crowd management
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