Black–White Disparities in Birth Outcomes: Is Racism-Related Stress a Missing Piece of the Puzzle?

Chapter

Abstract

For decades, large disparities in birth outcomes have been observed between babies born to African- American (black) women and those born to European-American (white) women. Adverse birth outcomes – being born “too early” (premature or preterm birth, before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy) or “too small” (low birth weight, less than 5½ pounds) – are powerful predictors not only of infant survival, but also of child health, development, and serious disability (Institute of Medicine, 2007). Recent research reveals that low birth weight and premature birth also are strong predictors of chronic disease in adulthood, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes, which are major causes of premature mortality (Barker, 2006; Phillips, Jones, & Goulden, 2006; Whincup et al., 2008). As shown in Figs. 10.1 and 10.2, the disparities generally have been persistent, until recently when relative disparities began to narrow somewhat, for undesirable reasons: the rates of both preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) worsened among white women, with little (PTB) or no (LBW) improvement among black women. (For simplicity, throughout this chapter “black” and “white” are used to refer only to non-Hispanic women.)

Keywords

Cortisol Income Cocaine Weathering 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Family and Community MedicineCenter on Social Disparities in HealthSan FranciscoUSA

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