Frequency-Hopping Systems

  • Don Torrieri


Frequency hopping is the periodic changing of the carrier frequency of a transmitted signal. This time-varying characteristic potentially endows a communication system with great strength against interference. Whereas a direct-sequence system relies on spectral spreading, spectral despreading, and filtering to suppress interference. the basic mechanism of interference suppression in a frequency-hopping system is that of avoidance. When the avoidance fails, it is only temporary because of the periodic changing of the carrier frequency. The impact of the interference is further mitigated by the pervasive use of channel codes, which are more essential for frequency-hopping than for direct-sequence systems. The basic concepts, spectral and performance aspects, and coding and modulation issues are presented in the first five sections of this chapter. The effects of partial-band interference and jamming are examined, whereas the impact of multiple-access interference is presented in Chap. 6. The most important issues in the design of frequency synthesizers are described in the final section.


Frequency Channel Pilot Symbol Frequency Synthesizer Symbol Error Probability Direct Digital Synthesizer 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Don Torrieri
    • 1
  1. 1.US Army Research LaboratoryAdelphiUSA

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