Facial trauma is a common presentation to the emergency department, usually as a result of a blunt trauma. The trauma can range from a simple, isolated nondisplaced fracture to complex displaced facial fractures. Multiple fracture patterns have been described that make it easier to efficiently detect, document, and communicate the diagnosis in patients with multiple fractures. Rene Le Fort made the earliest and most famous classification in 1901, and since that time multiple other fracture patterns have been described. While these can be present in pure form, often they coexist, particularly in the setting of high-impact trauma.
Frontal Sinus Nasal Bone Orbital Wall Orbital Apex Anterior Cranial Fossa
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
LeFort R. Etude experimentale sur les fractures de la machoire superieure. Rev Chir. 1901;23:208–27.Google Scholar
Sicher H, Debrul EL. Oral anatomy. 5th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 1970. p. 78.Google Scholar
Gentry LR et al. High resolution of the CT analysis of the facial struts in trauma: 1 and 2: normal anatomy and osseous and soft-tissue complications. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1983;140:523–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Manson P et al. Structural pillars of the facial skeleton: an approach to the management of Le Fort fractures. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1980;66(1):54–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fonseca R et al. Oral and maxillofacial trauma. St. Louis: Elsevier/Saunders; 2005.Google Scholar
Dolan K et al. The radiology of facial fractures. Radiographics. 1984;4:575–663.Google Scholar
Moore K et al. Clinically oriented anatomy. 6th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010.Google Scholar
Smith B, Regan WF. Blow-out fracture of the orbit, mechanism and correction of internal orbital fracture. Am J Ophthalmol. 1957;44:733–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Rhee J et al. Orbital blowout fractures: experimental evidence for the pure hydraulic theory. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2002;4:98–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chirico P et al. Orbital “blow-in” fractures: clinical and CT features. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1989;13(6):1017–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rohrich RJ et al. Superior orbital fissure syndrome: current management concepts. J Craniomaxillofac Trauma. 1995;1(2):44–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Hopper R et al. Diagnosis of midface fractures with CT: what the surgeon needs to know. Radiographics. 2006;26:783–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Markowitz B et al. Management of the medial canthal tendon in nasoethmoid orbital fractures: the importance of the central fragments in classification and treatment. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1991;87(5):843–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ioannides C et al. Fractures of the frontal sinus: classification and its implications for surgical treatment. Am J Otolaryngol. 1999;20(5):273–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stanley R et al. Injuries of the nasofrontal orifices in frontal sinus fractures. Laryngoscope. 1987;97(6):728–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gonty A et al. Management of frontal sinus fractures: a review of 33 cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1999;57:372–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar