The Role of International Assistance for Building the Capacity of National Law Enforcement Institutions: Lessons Learned from the Bulgarian Experience

Chapter

Abstract

International organizations are providing various forms of assistance for building the capacity of national law enforcement institutions. Assistance often targets countries like Bulgaria, where, in the process of transition from a socialist country to a democratic state, fundamental reforms have been implemented, including in the area of security and law enforcement, requiring considerable resources both in terms of funding and expertise. As most countries in Southeastern Europe at that time, Bulgaria was not in a position to face such a challenge by itself and had to rely on assistance from abroad, thus becoming a major beneficiary of most of the available international assistance instruments.

Against this background, the aim of this chapter is to make an overview of the different types of international assistance and capacity building activities in the area of law enforcement, outline the differences between them, and identify the advantages and shortcomings of each of them by examining their impact, in particular by studying the Bulgarian experience.

Keywords

Europe Syria Turkey Egypt Romania 

Abbreviations

CCC

Command and Coordination Center

DG

Directorate General

EEW

European evidence warrant

EJN

European Judicial Network

EU

European Union

GRECO

Group of States against Corruption

INTERPOL

International Criminal Police Organization

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NCB

National Central Bureau

NGO

Nongovernmental organization

OECD

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

RTA

Resident Twinning Advisors

TA

Technical assistance

TAIEX

Technical Assistance and Information Exchange Instrument

UN

United Nations

UNDP

United Nations Development Programme

UNODC

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

Bibliography

  1. Additional Protocol to the Convention on the Transfer of Sentenced Persons (CETS No.: 167), Council of Europe, Strasbourg. (1997). Available at http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/Commun/QueVoulezVous.asp?NT=167&CM=8&DF=04/11/2009&CL=ENG. November 3, 2009.
  2. Additional Protocol to the European Convention on Extradition (CETS No.: 086), Council of Europe, Strasbourg. (1975). Available at http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/Commun/QueVoulezVous.asp?NT=086&CM=8&DF=04/11/2009&CL=ENG. November 3, 2009.
  3. Additional Protocol to the European Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters, Council of Europe (CETS No.: 099), Council of Europe, Strasbourg. (1978). Available at http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/Commun/QueVoulezVous.asp?NT=099&CM=8&DF=04/11/2009&CL=ENG. November 3, 2009.
  4. Anti-corruption Reforms in Bulgaria: Key Results and Risks, Center for the Study of Democracy, Sofia. (2007). Available at http://www.csd.bg/artShow.php?id=8558. November 29, 2010.
  5. INTERPOL Annual Report 2009, INTERPOL, Lyon. (2010). Available at http://www.interpol.int/Public/ICPO/InterpolAtWork/iaw2009.pdf. November 29, 2010.
  6. Second Evaluation Round: Evaluation Report on Bulgaria, Council of Europe—Group of States against Corruption, Strasbourg. (2005). Available at http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/greco/evaluations/round2/GrecoEval2(2004)13_Bulgaria_EN.pdf. October 12, 2009.
  7. Second Evaluation Round: Compliance Report on Bulgaria, Council of Europe—Group of States against Corruption, Strasbourg. (2007). Available at http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/greco/evaluations/round2/GrecoRC2(2007)4_Bulgaria_EN.pdf. November 29, 2010.
  8. Bulgaria—Phase 2: Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris. (2003). Available at http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/8/19/2790505.pdf. October 12, 2009.
  9. Convention established by the Council in accordance with Article 34 of the Treaty on European Union, on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters between the Member States of the European Union, EU Council of Ministers, Brussels. (2000). Available at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexapi!prod!CELEXnumdoc&lg=EN&numdoc=42000A0712(01)&model=guichett. November 3, 2009.
  10. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and Related Documents, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris. (2010). Available at http://www.oecd.org/document/20/0,3343,en_2649_34859_2017813_1_1_1_1,00.html. November 29, 2010.
  11. Convention on Cybercrime (CETS No.: 185), Council of Europe, Budapest. (2001). Available at http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/EN/Treaties/html/185.htm. November 29, 2010.
  12. Convention on the Transfer of Sentenced Persons (CETS No: 112), Council of Europe, Strasbourg. (1983). Available at http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/Commun/QueVoulezVous.asp?NT=112&CM=8&DF=04/11/2009&CL=ENG. November 3, 2009.
  13. Council Act of 16 October 2001 establishing, in accordance with Article 34 of the Treaty on European Union, the Protocol to the Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters between the Member States of the European Union, EU Council of Ministers, Brussels. (2001). Available at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32001F1121(01):EN:HTML. November 3, 2009.
  14. Council Decision of 6 April 2009 establishing the European Police Office (Europol), Council of the European Union, Luxembourg. (2009). Available at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2009:121:0037:0066:EN:PDF. November 29, 2010.
  15. Council Framework Decision 2002/584/JHA of 13 June 2002 on the European arrest warrant and the surrender procedures between Member States, Council of the European Union, Brussels. (2002). Available at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32002F0584:EN:HTML. November 3, 2009.
  16. Council Framework Decision 2008/978/JHA of 18 December 2008 on the European evidence warrant for the purpose of obtaining objects, documents and data for use in proceedings in criminal matters, EU Council of Ministers, Brussels. (2008). Available at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2008:350:0072:0092:EN:PDF. November 3, 2009.
  17. Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (CETS No.: 197), Council of Europe, Warsaw. (2005). Available at http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/EN/Treaties/Html/197.htm. November 29, 2010.
  18. Council of Europe Convention on the Prevention of Terrorism (CETS No.: 196), Council of Europe, Warsaw. (2005). Available at http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/en/treaties/html/196.htm. November 29, 2010.
  19. Criminal Law Convention on Corruption (CETS No.: 173), Council of Europe, Strasbourg. (1999). Available at http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/EN/Treaties/Html/173.htm. November 29, 2010.
  20. European Convention on Extradition (CETS No.: 024), Council of Europe, Strasbourg. (1960). Available at http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/Commun/QueVoulezVous.asp?NT=024&CM=8&DF=04/11/2009&CL=ENG. November 3, 2009.
  21. European Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters (CETS No.: 030), Council of Europe, Strasbourg. (1959). Available at http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/Commun/QueVoulezVous.asp?NT=030&CM=8&DF=04/11/2009&CL=ENG. November 3, 2009.
  22. European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism (CETS No.: 090), Council of Europe, Strasbourg. (1977). Available at http://conventions.coe.int/treaty/en/treaties/html/090.htm. November 29, 2010.
  23. European Convention on the Transfer of Proceedings in Criminal Matters (CETS No.: 073), Council of Europe, Strasbourg. (1972). Available at http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/Commun/QueVoulezVous.asp?NT=073&CM=8&DF=04/11/2009&CL=ENG. November 3, 2009.
  24. Follow-up Report on the Implementation by Bulgaria of the Phase 2 Recommendations on the Application of the OECD Convention and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris. (2006). Available at http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/35/60/36101867.pdf. November 29, 2010.
  25. Glossary of Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) Terms, World Bank, New York. (2010). Available at http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTPOVERTY/EXTPSIA/0,,contentMDK:20433436∼menuPK:6145452∼pagePK:148956∼piPK:216618∼theSitePK:490130∼isCURL:Y,00.html. November 29, 2010.
  26. Governance for Sustainable Human Development: A UNDP Policy Document, United Nations Development Programme, New York. (1997). Available at http://mirror.undp.org/magnet/policy/. November 29, 2010.
  27. Reinforcing Criminal Justice in Border Districts, Maria Yordanova, Dimitar Markov, Center for the Study of Democracy, Sofia. (2007). Available at http://www.csd.bg/artShow.php?id=9030. November 3, 2009.
  28. International Convention against the Taking of Hostages (UNTS Volume 1316, I-21931), United Nations, New York. (1991). Available at http://treaties.un.org/doc/db/Terrorism/english-18-5.pdf. November 29, 2010.
  29. International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings (UNTS Volume 2149, I-37517), United Nations, New York. (2003). Available at http://www.un.org/law/cod/terroris.htm. November 29, 2010.
  30. International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism (UNTS Volume 2178, I-38349), United Nations, New York. (2004). Available at http://www.un.org/law/cod/finterr.htm. November 29, 2010.
  31. OECD Anti-Bribery Convention Phase 3 Monitoring: Information Resources, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris. (2009). Available at http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/39/16/44687836.pdf. November 29, 2010.
  32. Progress Report 2009: Enforcement of the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, Fritz Heimann and Gillian Dell, Transparency International, Berlin. (2009). Available at http://www.transparency-usa.org/news/documents/FinalOECDProgressReport2009.pdf. November 29, 2010.
  33. Reform, Restructuring and Rebuilding of Police and Law Enforcement Agencies, United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations, New York. (2009). Available at http://www.peacekeepingbestpractices.unlb.org/pbps/Library/RR%20&%20R%20of%20LEA.pdf. November 29, 2010.
  34. Replies to the Questionnaire on the Evaluation of the Tools for Judicial Cooperation in Criminal Matters, Council of the European Union, Brussels. (2009). Available at http://euromed-justice.eu/files/repository/20090714110352_EvaluationofthetoolsinjudicialcooperationRepliestothequestionari2009.pdf. November 29, 2010.
  35. Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Progress in Bulgaria under the Co-operation and Verification Mechanism (SEC(2009)1074), European Commission, Brussels. (2009). Available at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2009:0402:FIN:EN:PDF. November 29, 2010.
  36. Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Progress in Bulgaria under the Co-operation and Verification Mechanism, European Commission, Brussels. (2010). Available at http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/secretariat_general/cvm/docs/com_2010_400_en.pdf. November 29, 2010.
  37. Report of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime on its fourth session, held in Vienna from 8 to 17 October 2008 (CTOC/COP/2008/19), United Nations, Vienna. (2008). Available at http://www.unodc.org/documents/treaties/organized_crime/Final_report_English.pdf. November 29, 2010.
  38. Report on the Activities of the Commission for Establishing of Property Acquired from Criminal Activity for the Period January 2009–December 2009, Commission for Establishing of Property Acquired from Criminal Activity, Sofia. (2010). Available at http://www.cepaca.bg/?act=content&id=134. November 29, 2010.
  39. Rules of Procedure, Council of Europe – Group of States against Corruption, Strasbourg. (1999). Available at http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/greco/documents/2005/Greco(2005)6_EN.pdf. November 29, 2010.
  40. Second Additional Protocol to the European Convention on Extradition (CETS No.: 098), Council of Europe, Strasbourg. (1978). Available at http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/Commun/QueVoulezVous.asp?NT=098&CM=8&DF=04/11/2009&CL=ENG. November 3, 2009.
  41. Second Additional Protocol to the European Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters, Council of Europe (CETS No.: 182), Council of Europe, Strasbourg. (2001). Available at http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/Commun/QueVoulezVous.asp?NT=182&CM=8&DF=04/11/2009&CL=ENG. November 3, 2009.
  42. Statute of the Group of States against Corruption (GRECO), Council of Europe, Strasbourg. (1999). Available at http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/greco/documents/resolution(99)5_en.asp. November 29, 2010.
  43. Strengthening the Capacity of the Anti-Corruption Commission to Counteract Corruption in Public Administration and Judiciary, European Commission, Brussels. (2006). Available at http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/fiche_projet/work/2006_018-343.09.01%20Strengthening%20the%20Capacity%20of%20the%20Anti-Corruption%20Commission.pdf?CFID=4294327&CFTOKEN=ddca663a0c8f2395-1557FF91-0549-3984-C717E2D66BE96DD5&jsessionid=0601103354192b665260. November 29, 2010.
  44. The European Union and Cooperation in Criminal Matters: The Search for Balance, Matti Joutsen, The European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control, affiliated with the United Nations (HEUNI), Helsinki. (2006). Available at http://www.heuni.fi/uploads/gg29d0zcr1rpk_1.pdf. November 29, 2010.
  45. United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNTS Volume 2349, I-42146), United Nations, New York. (2007). Available at http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/index.html. November 29, 2010.
  46. United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTS Volume 2225, I-39574), United Nations, New York. (2007). Available at http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CTOC/index.html. November 29, 2010.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Law ProgramCenter for the Study of DemocracySofiaBulgaria

Personalised recommendations