The Lifestyles of Youth and Their Peers

Chapter

Abstract

Most children commit their first offence when they are 12, 13 or 14 years old (see Chap. 3). This is the adolescencet period where children seek autonomy and identity and are increasingly expected to make their own decisions and take more responsibility. Their need for independence means that parents become less important, while school and especially friends become more important. Therefore in this chapter we focus on the role of friends and their influence on the offending behaviour of adolescents.

Keywords

Europe Smoke Stein 

References

  1. Blaya, C. & Gatti, U. (2010). Deviant youth groups in Italy and France: Prevalence and characteristics. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 16, 127–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Campbell, A. (1987). Self-definition by rejection: The case of gang girls. Social Problems, vol. 5, p. 451–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cohen, L.E. & Felson, J. (1979). Social Change and Crime Rate Trends: Routine Activity Approach. American Sociological Review, vol. 44, p. 588–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Connor, M.J. (1994). Peer relations and peer pressure. Educational Psychology in Practice, 9, 207–215.Google Scholar
  5. Dekker, S.H. & Weerman, F.M. (eds.) (2005). European Street Gangs and Troublesome Youth Groups. New York: Altamira Press.Google Scholar
  6. Dijk, J.J.M. van & Steinmetz, C.H.D. (1983). Victimisation survey: beyond Measuring the Volume of Crime. Victimology: An International Journal, vol. 8, p. 291–301.Google Scholar
  7. Garnier, H.E. & Stein, J.A. (2002). An 18-year model of family and peer effects on adolescent drug use and delinquency. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, vol. 1, p. 46–56.Google Scholar
  8. Gemert, F. Van (2001). Youth Groups and Gangs in Amsterdam: A pre-test of the Eurogang expert survey. In: Dekker, S.H. & Weerman, F. (eds.) European Street Gangs and Troublesome Youth Groups. New York: Altamira Press, p. 147–168.Google Scholar
  9. Haymoz, S. & Gatti, U. (2010). Girl Members of Deviant Youth Groups, Offending Behavior and Victimization: Results of the ISRD2 in Italy and Switzerland. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 16, 167-182.Google Scholar
  10. Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of Delinquency. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  11. Junger-Tas, J., Marshall, I.H. & Ribeaud, D. (2003). Delinquency in an International Perspective: The International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD). The Hague: Kugler.Google Scholar
  12. Klein, M.W., Kerner, H.-J., Maxson, C.L. & Weitekamp, E.G.M. (2002). The European Paradox: Street Gangs and Youth Groups in the U.S. and Europe. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publisher.Google Scholar
  13. Laan, A.M. van der. (2006) Jeugddelinquentie: risico’s em bescherming. Bevindingen uit de WODC Monitor Zelfgerapporteerde Jeugdcriminaliteit 2005. Meppel: Boom Juridische Uitgevers.Google Scholar
  14. Lacourse, E., Nagin, D., Tremblay, R.E., Vitaro, F. & Claes, M. (2003). Developmental trajectories of boys’ delinquent group membership and facilitation of violent behaviors during adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, vol. 15, p. 183–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mergens, K.C.I.M. & Weerman, F.M. (2010). Attitudes, delinquency and peers: The role of social norms in attitude-behaviour inconsistency. European Journal of Criminology, vol. 7, p. 299–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Moore, J.W. (1991). Going down to the Barrio. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Osgood, W.D., Wilson, J.K., O’Malley, P.M. (1996). Routine Activities and Individual Deviant Behaviour. American Sociological Review, vol. 5, p. 635–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sutherland, E.H. (1947). Principles of Criminology. 4th ed., Philadelphia: Lippincitt.Google Scholar
  19. Sutherland, E.H., Cressey, D.R. & Luckenbill, D.F. (1992). Principles of Criminology. 11th ed., Dis Hills: General Hall.Google Scholar
  20. Thornberry, T.P. (2005). Explaining multiple patterns of offending across the life course and across generations. Annals, AAPSS, 602, p. 156–195.Google Scholar
  21. Thornberry, T.P. & Krohn, M.D. (eds.) (2003). Taking stock of delinquency: An overview of findings from contemporary longitudinal studies. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenurn Publishers.Google Scholar
  22. Warr, M. & Stafford, M. (1991). The influence of delinquent peers: what they think or what they do? Criminology, vol. 29, p. 851–866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Warr, M. (2002). Companions in Crime: The Social Aspects of Criminal Conduct. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Warr, M. (2003). The tangled web: Delinquency, deception and parental attachment. Journal of Adolescence, 36, 607–622.Google Scholar
  25. Weerman, F.M. & Esbensen, F.A. (2005). A Cross-National Comparison of Youth Gangs. In: Decker, S.H. & Weerman, F.M. (eds.) European Street Gangs and Troublesome Youth Groups. Lanham: Altamira Press, p. 219–255.Google Scholar
  26. Weijters, G. (2008). Youth delinquency in Dutch cities and school. A multilevel approach. Nijmegen: Print Partners Ipskamp Nijmegen.Google Scholar
  27. Wikström, P.H. & Butterworth, D.A. (2006). Adolescent crime. Individual differences and lifestyles. Devon: Willan Publishing.Google Scholar
  28. Wikström, P-O. (2006). Individuals, settings and acts of crime: Situational mechanisms and the explanation of crime. In: Wikström, P-O. & Samson, R.J. (eds.) The Explanation of Crime: Context, Mechanisms and Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 61–107.Google Scholar
  29. Wikström, P.-O., & Svensson, R. (2008). Why are English Youths More Violent Than Swedish Youths?: A Comparative Study of the Role of Crime Propensity, Lifestyles and Their Interactions in Two Cities. European Journal of Criminology, 5, p. 309–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Verwey-Jonker InstituteUtrechtThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations