Carotid Body HIF-1α, VEGF and NOS Expression during Aging and Hypoxia
Carotid body (CB) undergoes several morphological, physiological and biochemical changes during aging, hypoxia and hyperoxia (Di Giulioet al., 1998; Lahiriet al., 1990; Lahiri et al.,2000). CB releases several substances like dopamine, acetilcholine, nerpinephrine, erythropoietin, substance P, and it detects pO2 and pCO2 levels in the blood, it regulates ventilation according to oxygen needs and body requirements for homeostasis maintenence (Bunnet al., 1996). The ventilatory response to hypoxia is characterised by increase in volume and ventilatory frequency in relation to the degree of hypoxia. This response is attenuated with aging (Fukuda 1992) and it is related to the age-dependent structures and function modifications (Guenard 1998), including the basal reduction of oxygen requirements (Sohalet.al,1986, Gunnarsson et al, 1996).
KeywordsCarotid Body Intermittent Hypoxia Ventilatory Response Chronic Hypoxia Acute Hypoxia
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Cerretelli, P., and Hoppeler, H., 1996, Morphological and metabolic response to chronic hypoxia: the muscle system. Handbook of Physiology -Environment Physiology 50: 1155–1181.Google Scholar
- Di Giulio, C., Grilli, A., Ciocca, L, Macrì, M.A., Daniele, F., Sabatino, G., Cacchio, M., Da Porto, R., Di Natale, F., and Felaco, M., 2000, Carotid body NO-CO interaction and chronic hypoxia. In Oxygen sensing: Molecule to Man (S. Lahiri, N.R. Prabhakar, R.E. Forster, eds.), Kluver Press, New York, pp.685–690.Google Scholar
- Lahiri, S., Mokashi, A., Di Giulio, C, Sherpa, A.K., Huang, W.X., and Data, P.G.,1990, Carotid body adaptation: Lesson from chronic stimuli. In Hypoxia: The Adaptations (J.R. Sutton, G. Coates, J.E. Remmers and B.C. Dekker, eds.), Philadelphia, pp. 127–130.Google Scholar
- Prabhakar, N.R., Fields, R.D., Baker, T., Fletcher, E.C., 2001, Intermittent hypoxia: cell to system. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 281: 524–528.Google Scholar
- Soliz, J.V., Pequignot, J., Sempre, B., Cottet-Emard, J.M., Dalmaz ,Y., Favier, R.,Spielvogel, H., Pequignot, J.M., 2000, Gender differentiation on the chemoreflex during growth at high altitude: functional and neurochemical studies. Am J. Physiol. Regul Integr. Comp. Physiol. 278: 806–816.Google Scholar
- Zakrewicz, A., Secomb, T.W., Pries, A.R., 2001, Angioadaptation: keeping the vascular system in shape. News Physiol. Sci. 17: 197–201.Google Scholar