An Overview of Extracellular Calcium Homeostasis and the Roles of the CaR in Parathyroid and C-cells

  • Ambrish Mithal
  • Edward M. Brown
Part of the Endocrine updates book series (ENDO, volume 19)


Calcium ions are of vital importance for the human body. Both within the outside of the cell, calcium (Ca2+) plays key roles in numerous crucial physiological processes. Intracellular calcium is vital for regulating myriad cellular functions, such as differentiation, secretion, proliferation and motility, and it also acts as a cofactor in numerous enzymatic reactions (1). Equally importantly, it serves as an intracellular second messenger for a variety of receptor-mediated events. The levels of free calcium in the cytosol (Ca2+ i), although dependent to some extent on extracellular calcium (Ca2+ o), are much lower than the latter (100 nM vs. 1.1–1.3 mM) (2,3). Quite unlike Ca2+ o, Ca2+ i fluctuates rapidly and over a wide range (10-fold or more) in response to hormonal and other stimuli (3).


Parathyroid Gland Parathyroid Adenoma Extracellular Calcium Parathyroid Cell Familial Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ambrish Mithal
    • 1
  • Edward M. Brown
    • 2
  1. 1.Endocrinology and Diabetes DepartmentIndraprastha Apollo HospitalsNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Endocrine-Hypertension Division, Department of MedicineBrigham and Women’s HospitalBostonUSA

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