Brain Ischemia pp 285-351 | Cite as

Secondary Neuroprotection

  • Eugene Gusev
  • Veronica I. Skvortsova

Abstract

Taking into consideration the modern concept of delayed morphological completion of infarction and the possibility of a certain part of the penumbral brain tissue to survive for at least 48–72 h from the stroke onset, great importance is attached to elaboration of the secondary neuroprotection approaches aimed at averting delayed neuronal death connected with oxidant stress reactions, local inflammation, trophic dysfunction, and apoptosis (Table 15.1). These processes take part not only in the “up-formation” of brain infarction, but also in long-term reconstitution of the neuro-immuneendocrine system, and promote both progression of atherogenesis and chronic brain tissue damage for months after the stroke (see Chapters 6–10). Secondary neuroprotection can be started relatively later, 6–12 h after the vascular event, and should be most intensive within the first 7 days of the illness. It is important to mention not only its therapeutic, but also preventive value. Correction of delayed consequences of ischemia can lead to retardation of vascular encephalopathy development in the post-stroke period.
Table 15.1.

Main directions in secondary neuroprotection

Direction

Basic drug groups

Representatives

Present state of study

Antioxidants

Free radical scavengers

Trilazad mesylate (U-74006F)

Efficacy is not proven, X

  

Phenyl-t-butyl nitrone (PBN)

Preclinical studies

 

NO-synthase blockers

7-Nitroindazole

Preclinical studies

 

1-(2-Fluromethyl-phenyl)-imidazole

7-Nitroindazole

Preclinical studies

  

Aminoguanidines

Preclinical studies

 

Selen-organic compound of complex antioxidant action

Ebselen

Studies are in progress

Inhibitors of local inflammation

Antibodies to intercellular adhesion molecules (anti-ICAM)

Enlimomab

Severe adverse effects, X

  

Human antibodies to leukocyte integrins, CD11/CD18

Preclinical studies, start of clinical studies

 

Pro-inflammatory cytokine inhibitors

Endogenious antagonists of TNF and IL-1β receptors

Preclinical studies

  

Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP)

Preclinical studies

 

Endogenous anti-inflammatory cytokines

TGF-β1

Preclinical studies

  

IL-10

Preclinical studies

Statins

Statins

3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors

Preclinical studies, start of clinical studies

Estrogens

Estrogens

Estrogens

Preclinical studies, start of clinical studies

Trophic factors

Neurotrophic factors

Basic fibroblastic growth factor (bFGF)

Studies are in progress

  

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)

Preclinical studies

  

Insulin-dependent growth factor (IGF)

Preclinical studies

  

Osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1)

Preclinical studies

Neuromodulators

Neuropeptides

Semax (ACTH 4–10)

Studies are in progress

  

Cerebrolysin

Studies are in progress

  

NAP (NAPVSIPQ)

Preclinical studies, start of clinical studies

Regulators of receptor structures

Gangliosides

GM1

Studies are in progress

Note: X - trials are stopped

Keywords

Aspirin Vanadium Carotenoid Cardiol Triglyceride 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Akras, A., 1991, Cerebro lys in: general review. In The 3rd Int Symp on Cerebrolysin, Moscow, 5 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alexidze, N. G., Balavadze, M. V., Ponomaryova-Stepnaya, M. A., et al., 1983, Bull Exp Biol Med. 96 (7): 24 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alter, M. S., for the SASS investigators, 1994, Stroke. 25: 1141–1148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    And O. S., Chang, N. C., Yu, R. K., 1978, Analyt Biochem. 89: 43 7–441.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Angeler I, F., Scarpino, O., Mart inazzo, C., et al., 1992, Cerebrovsc Dis. 2: 163–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Arefieva, I. A., 1992, The Study of ACTH Analog Effect and Tuftsine on Mammalian Nervous System Cells. Candidate’s dissertation, Moscow (in Russian).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Argentino, C., Sacchetti, M. L., Toni, D., et al., 1989, Stroke. 20: 1143–1149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ashmarin, I. P., Kamensky, A. A., Myasoedo V. N. F., Skvortsova, V. I., 2000, Regulatory Peptides. 89: 51.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ashmarin, I. P., Nezavibatko, V. N., Myasoyedov, N. F., et al., 1997, J Higher Nerv Activ. 47 (2): 420–430 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ashmarin, I. P., Stukalov, P. V., 1996, Neurochemistry. Institute of Biomedical Chemistry Publishing House, RAMS, Moscow (in Russian).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Avrova, N. F., 1984, Ukr Biochem J. 56 (3): 245–253 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ay, H., Ay, I., Koroshetz, W. J., Finklestein, S. P., 1999, Cerebrovasc Dis. 9 (3): 131135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ay, I., Sigimori, H., Finklestein, S. P., 2001, Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 87 (1): 71–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Banati, R. B., Graeber, M. B., 1994, Dev Neurosci. 16: 114–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Barolin, G. S., 1996, EuroRehab. 3: 135–143.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bashkatova, V. G., Koshelev, V. B., Fadyukova, O. E., et al., 2001, Brain Res. 894 (1): 145–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bassi, S., Albizzati, M. G., Sbacchi, M., et al., 1984, J Neurosci Res. 12: 493–498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Battistin, L., Cesari, A., Galligioni, F., et al., 1985, Eur Neurol. 24: 343–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Betz, A. L., Yang, G. Y., Davidson, B. L., 1995, J Cerebr Blood Flow Metab. 15: 547–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Birkmayer, W., 1953, Neural Med. 2: 100.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bjorklund, A., Stenevi, U., 1979, Physiol Rev. 59: 62–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Boado, R. J., 1998, Neurosei Lett. 255 (3): 147–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Boado, R. J., 1999, Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 63 (2): 371–374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Boado, R. J., 2000, J Neural Transm Suppl. 59: 255–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Boado, R. J., 2001, Neurosei Res. 40 (4): 337–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Boado, R. J., Wu, D., Windisch, M., 1999, Neurosci Res. 34 (4): 217–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bowes, M. P., Zivin, J. A., Rothlein, R., 1993, Exp Neurol. 119: 215–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Brenneman, D. E., Schultzberg, M., Bartfai, T., Oozes, 1., 1992, J Neuroehem. 58: 454–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cahan, L. D., 1982, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 79 (24): 7629–7633.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Candelise, L., Ciccone, A., 2001, Coehrane Database Syst Rev. 4: CD000094.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cao, X., Phillis, J. W., 1994, Brain Res. 644: 267–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Carolei, A., Fieschi, C; Bruno, R., Toffano, G., 1991, Cerebrovasc Brain Metab Rev. 3: 134–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chen, C. C., Manning, A. M., 1996, Cytokine. 8 (1): 58–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chen, H., Chopp, M., Zhang, R. L., et al., 1994, Ann Neur. 35: 458–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chen, J., Li, Y., Wang, L., el al., 2002, J Neurol Sci. 199 (1–2): 17–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chen, J., Nagayama, T., Jin, K., et al., 1998, J. Neurosci. 18 (13): 4914–4928.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chen, L., Haught, W. H., Yang, N., et al., 1997, J Am Coll Cardiol. 30: 569–575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chopp, M., Zhang, R. L., Chen, H., et al., 1994, Stroke. 25: 869–876.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cockcroft, K. M., Meistrell, M., Zimmerman, G. A., et al., 1996, Stroke. 27: 1393–1398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Collart, M. A., Baeuerle, P., Vassali, P., 1990, Mol Cell Biol. 10: 1498–1506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Collingridge, G. L., Bliss, T. V., 1987, Trends Neurosci. 10: 288–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cote, R., Hachinski, V. C., Shurvell, B. L., et al., 1986, Stroke. 17: 731–737.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Culmsee, C., Vedder, H., Ravati, A., et al., 1999, J Cerebr Blood Flow Metab. 19 (11): 1263–1269.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Culmsee, C., Zhu, Y., Krieg1stein, J., Mattson, M. P., 2001, J Cerebr Blood Flow Metab. 21 (4): 334–343.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    DalToso, R., Skaper, S. D., Ferrari, G., el al., 1988, Ganglioside involvement in membrane-mediated transfer of trophic information: relationship to GM I effects following CNS injury. In Pharmacological Approaches to the Treatment of Brain and Spinal Cord Injury (Stein, D. G., Sabel, B. A., eds.) Plenum Press, New York, pp. 143–165.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Dag, K. J. E., 1992, Eur J Pharmacol. 219: 153–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Dawson, D. A., Martin, D., Hallenbeck, J. M., 1996, Neurosci Lett. 218: 41–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Dawson, D. A., Masayasu, H., Graham, D. I., et al., 1995, Neurosci Lett. 185: 65–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    De Bilbao, F., Guarin, E., Nef, P., et al., 2000, Eur J Neurosci. 12 (3): 921–934.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Devuyst, G., Bogouss1avsky, J., 1999, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr. 67: 419–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    De Wied, D., 1987, Progr Brain Res. 72: 93–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Di Napoli, M., Papa, F., 2001, Stroke. 32 (10): 2446–2447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ding, A., Nathan, C. F., Graycar, J., et al., 1990, J lmmunol. 145: 940–944.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Dolotov, O. V., Grivennikov, I. A., 1997, Application of primary cultures of rat fetal neurons to the study of neurotrophic action of peptides. In 15th ESACT Meet, Tours.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Dostoynova, T. V., 1997, Cerebrolysin efficacy in ischemic stroke. In Actual Questions of Clinical Angioneurology, St. Petersburg, pp. 21–22 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Duval, D., 2000, Stroke. 31 (4): 989–990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Emmanuel, N. M., Denisov, E. T., Mayzus, E. K., 1965, Chain Reactions of Hydroearbons Oxidation in Liquid Phase. Moscow (in Russian).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Endres, M., Laufs, U., Huang, Z., et al., 1998, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 95: 8880–8885.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Enlimomab Acute Stroke Trial Study Group, 1997, Neurology. 48: A270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Erokhin, O. Y., 1984, Monitoring of Brain Bioelectrical Activity and Energy Brain Metabolism in Acute Ischemic Stroke. Candidate’s dissertation, Moscow, 231 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Escott, K. J., Beech, J. S., Haga, K. K., et al., 1998, J Cerebr Blood Flow Metab. 18: 281–287.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    FIBLAST Safety Study Group, 1998, Stroke. 29: 287.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Fidler, S. M., 1993, Clinical and Electrophysiological Study of Cerebrolysin Effects on Functional State of Brain in Acute Period of Ischemic Stroke. Candidate’s dissertation, Moscow (in Russian).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Fisher, M., 1995, Eur Neurol. 35: 3–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Fisher, M., Bogousslavsky, J., 1998, JAMA. 279: 1298–1303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Fisher, M., Shebitz, V., 2000, Review on therapeutic approaches to ischemic stroke: past, present, future. Korsakoff J Neurol Psyehiatr (Stroke). 1: 21–33 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Floyd, R. A., Hensley, K., 2000, Ann NY Acad Sci. 899: 222–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Fujiwara, K., Date, I., Shingo, T., et al., 2001, Cell Transplant. 10 (4–5): 419–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Garcia, J. H., Liu, K.-F., Bree, M. P., 1996, Am J Pathol. 148: 241–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Garcia, J. H., Liu, K. F., Yoshida, Y., et al., 1994, Am J Pathol. 195: 721–740.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gielen, W., 1968, Z Nature. 23: 1007–1008.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Giraldi, C., Masi, M. C., Manetti, M., et al., 1990, Acta Neurol Nap. 12: 214–221.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Glebov, R. N., Kryzhanovsky, G. N., 1978, Functional Biochemistry of Synapses. Meditsina, Moscow (in Russian).Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Goldberg, M. P., 1997, Stroke Trials Database, Internet Stroke Center at Washington University (cited 5 April 1999) (http://www. neuro. wustl.edu/stroke).Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Gothe, M., 1974, ZFA. 50: 588.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Gozes, I., et al., 1999, J Neurochem. 72: 1283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gozes, I., Giladi, E., Pinhasov, A., et al., 2000, Regulatory Peptides. 89 (1➂): 62.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Grander, C. V., Hamilton, B. R., Gresham, G. E., et al., 1989, Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 70: 100–103.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Grilli, M., Barbieri, I., Basudev, H., et al., 2000, Eur J Neurosci. 12 (7): 2265–2272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Grivennikov, I. A., Dolotov, O. V., Goldina, Ju. I., 1999, Mol Biol. 33 (1): 120–126 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Grivennikov, I. A., Dolotov, O. V., Myasoedov, N. F., et al., 1997, Effects of a new behaviorally active ACTH analog, Semax, on cholinergic basal forebrain neurons. Soc Neurosci. 27th Ann Meet New Orlean. 23 (1): 891.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gromova, O. A., Avdeyenko, T. V., Burtsev, Ye. M., 1998, Korsakoff J Neurol Psychiatr. 1: 36–37 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gross, C. E., Bednar, M. M., Howard, D. B., Sporn, M. B., 1993, Stroke. 24: 558–562.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Gu, Z., Jiang, Q., Zhang, G., 2001, Neuroreport. 12 (16): 3487–3491.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Gurlenya, A. M., Talapin, V. I., 1978, Pharmacotherapy of Nervous Diseases. Vysshaya Shkola, Minsk, 288 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Gusev, E. I., 1992, Ischemic brain disease. Assembly speech, Moscow (in Russian).Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Gusev, E. I., Burd, G. S., Skvortsova, V. I., et al., 1994, Korsakoff J Neurol Psychiatr. 1: 9–13 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gusev, E. I., Burd, G. S., Skvortsova, V. I., 1995, Herald RSMU. 1 (1): 21–28 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Gusev, E. I., Burd, G. S., Skvortsova, V. I., Gekht, A. B., 1996, The system of neuroprotective therapy of ischemic stroke. In Modern Techniques of Diagnosis and Treatment of Nervous Diseases, Ufa, pp. 107–118 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Gusev, E. I., Skvortsova, V.I., 1990, Case Record Form for the Examination and Treatment of Patients with Ischemic Stroke. Moscow, pp. 1–44 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Gusev, E. I., Skvortsova, V. I., Myasoedov, N. F., et al., 1999, Cerebrovasc Dis. 9: 126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Gusev, E. I., Skvortsova, V. I., Rayevsky, K. S., et al., 1995, Detection of neurotransmitter amino acid content in CSF of patients with ischemic stroke. In Functional Studies as a Basis for Drug Creation, Moscow, pp. 133–134 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Gusev, E. I., Skvortsova, V. U., Raevsky, K. S., et al., 1998, Aktuelle Neurologie. 25 (3): 132.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Gusev, E.I., Skvortsova, V.I., Zhuravleva, E. Yu., et al., 1997, Neuropeptide Semax (ACTH 4-10) in therapy of acute ischemic stroke. In 2nd Int Santa Margherita Ligure Symp on New Therapeutic Strategies in Ischemic Stroke, Genoa. 11: 55–56.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Gusev, E. I., Skvortsova, V.I., Zhuravlyova, E. Yu., Yakovleva, E. A., 1999, Int Med J. 5 (1): 45–51 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Gwag, B. J., Canzoniero, L.M., Sensi, S. L., 1999, Neuroscience. 90 (4): 1339–1348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Haley, E. C., On behalf of the RANTTAS II investigators, 1998, Stroke. 29: 1256–1257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Hara, H., Fink, K., Endres. M., et al., 1997, J Cerebr Blood Flow Metab. 17: 370–375.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Harrer, G., 1954, Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 79: 983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Harrer, G., 1972, Arztliehe Praxis. 24: 3595.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Hebenstait, G. F., 1991, Efficacy of amino acid peptide compound in cerebral dysfunction with especial reference to gerontopsychiatry. In Abstlnt Symp on Cerebrolysin Application, Moscow, pp. 16–20 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Henric-Noack, P., Prehn, J. H. M., Kreiglestein, J., 1996, Stroke. 27: 1609–1615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Herin, G. A., Du, S., Aizenman, E., 2001, J Neurochem. 78 (6): 1307–1314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hemandez. L. A., Grisham, M. B., Twohic, B., et al., 1987, Am J Physiol. 253: H699–H703.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hershkovitz, M., 1983, Biochim Acta. 692: 495–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Hershkovitz, M., Zwiers, H., Gispen, W. H., 1982, Biochim Acta. 692: 495–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Hockenbery, D. M., Oltvai, Z. N., Xiao-Ming, Y., et al., 1993, Cello 75: 241–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Hussein, O., Schlezinger, S., Rosenblat, M., et al., 1997, Atherosclerosis. 128: 11–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Hutter-Paier, L., Grygar, E., Windisch, M., 1996, J Neural Transm Suppl. 47: 267–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Iadecola, C., Zhang, F., Xu, X., 1995, Am J Physiol. 268: 286–292.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ichiama, T., Campbell, I. L., Furukawa, S., et al., 1999, J Neurose i Res. 58: 684–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Imai, H., Masayasu, H., Dewar, D., et al., 2001, Stroke. 32 (9): 2149–2154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Irving, E. A., Barone, F. C, Reith, A. D., et al, 2000, Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 77 (1): 65–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Irving, E. A., Hadingham, S. J., Roberts, J., et al., 2000, Neurosci Lett. 288 (1): 45–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Issawdeh, S., Lorentien, J. C., Mustafa, M. I., et al., 1996, J Neuroimmunol. 69 (1➁): 103–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Isuji, S., Arita, M., Nagai, G., 1983, J Biochem. 94 (1): 303–306.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Jamieson, D. G., Reivich, M., Alves, W., et al., 1989, J Cerebr Blood Flow Metab. 9 (1): S602.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Jean, W. C., Speilman, S. R., Nussbaum, E. S., Low, W. C., 1998, Neurosurgery. 43: 1382–1396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Jensen, M. L., Henriksen, U., Dahl, B. J., et al., 1986, Allergy. 41 (2): 151–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Kadoya, C., Domino, E. F., Yang, G. Y., et al., 1995, Stroke. 26: 1035–1038.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Kamkin, A. G., Kiseleva, I. S., Kositskii, I. G., et al., 1985, USSR Acad Sci Reports. 284: 245–248.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Kane, D. J., Ord, T., Anton, R., et al., 1995, J Neurosci. 40: 269–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Kaplan, A. Ya., Kamensky, A. A., Ashmarin, I. P., et al., 1991, Anti-ischemic properties of neuropeptide Semax: EEG analysis. In Application of Minor Regulatory Peptides in Anesthesiology and Intensive Therapy, Moscow, pp. 78–87 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Kaplan, A. Ya., Koehetova, A. G., Nezavibatko, V. N., et al., 1996, Neurosci Res Commun. 19 (2): 115–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Kaplan, A. Ya., Koshelev, V. H., Nezavibatko, V. N., Ashmarin, I. P., 1992, Human Physiol. 18 (5): 104–107 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Karasek, F., 1975. In 2nd Sowjet-Osterrich Symp, 34.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Karpiak, S. E., Hanadik, S. P., Wakade, C. G., et al., 1990, Crit Rev Neurobiol. 5 (3): 221–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Karpiak, S. E., Li, Y. S., Hanadik, S. P., 1986, Clin Neuropharmacol (CNK). 9: 338–348.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Kassel, N. F., Haley, E. C., Appersonhausen, C., et al., 1996, J Neurosurg. 84 (2): 221–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Kawamata, T., Dietrich, D. W., Schallert, E., et al., 1997, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 94: 8179–8184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Kawamata, T., Ren, J., Chan, T. C., et al., 1998, Neuroreport. 9: 1441–1445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Kinouchi, H., Mizui, T., Carlson, E., et al., 1991, J Cerebr Blood Flow Metab. 21: 423.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Koike, T., Tanaka, S., 1991, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 88: 3892–3896.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Kolesnick, R., Golde, D. W., 1994, Cell. 77: 325–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Kope R. D., 1997, Cerebrolysin: unique neurotrophic effect and clinical use.ln Ist Int Mondsee Med Meet. Unterach, Austria, 6.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Koppi, S., et al., 1996, Wien Med Wschr. 145: 555–567.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Kovalenko, A. V., 1992, Functional State of Efferent and Afferent Pathways of CNS in Acute Ischemic Stroke on the Background of Neuroprotective Therapy. Candidate’s dissertat ion, Moscow (in Russian).Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Kovalev, G. V., 1985, Pharmacology and clinical application of neuroreactive amino acids and their analogs. In Works Volgograd Med Inst, Volgograd. 37 (5): 295 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Krammer, F., 1959, Prakt Arzt. 13: 649.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Kreps, E. M., 1981, Lipids of Cellular Membranes. Nauka, Leningrad, 339 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Kryzhanovsky, G. N., Lutsenko, V. K., 1995, Adv Contemp Biol. 115 (1): 31–49 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Kunsch, C., Lang, R. K., Rosen, C. A., Shannon, M. F., 1994, Immunol. 153: 153–164.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Ladurner, G., 2001, Stroke. 32: 323.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Laufs, U., Gertz, K., Dirnagl, U., et al., 2002, Brain Res. 942 (1-2): 23–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Lebedeva, N. V., 1975, The experience of Cerebrolysin application in stroke patients. In Works 2nd Moscow Med Inst, Moscow. 48 (2): 80–85 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Ledeen, R. W., 1983, Gangliosides. In Handbook of Neurochemistry, Plenum Press, New York. 3: 41–90.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Lee, A.-S., 1976, Prakt Arzt. 24: 907.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Lee, J. M., Zipfel, G. J., Choi, D. W., 1999, Nature. 399 (24): 7–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Lees, K. R., 1998, Lancet. 351: 1447–1448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Lenzi, G. L., Grigoletto, F., Gent, M., et al., 1994, Stroke. 25: 1552–1558.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Leskawa, K. C., Rosenberg, A., 1980, Adv Exp Med Biol. 125: 125–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Liao, J. K., 2002, Atheroscler Suppl. 3 (I): 21–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Liao, S., Chen, W., Kuo, J., Chen, C., 2001, Neurosei Lell. 297 (3): 159–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Libermann, T. A., Baltimore, D., 1990, Mol Cell Biol. 2327–2334.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Lin, S. Z., Hoffer, B. J., Kaplan, P., Wang, Y., 1999, Stroke. 30: 126–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Linnik, M. D., Zobri st, R. H., Hatfield, M. D., 1993, Stroke. 24: 2002–2008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    lipton, P., 1999, Physiol Rev. 79 (4): 1431–1568.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Loddick, S. A., et al., 1998, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 95: 1894–1898.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Lu, A., Ran, A., Parme ntier-Batteur, S., et al., 2002, J Neurochem. 81 (2): 355–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Mahadic, S. P., Hawver, D. B., Hang ung, B. K., et al., 1989, J Neurosci Res. 24 (3): 402–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Mahone Y. F.I., Barthel, D. W., 1965, Md State Med J. 14: 61–65.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Mandir. A. S., Poitras, M. F., Berliner, A. R., et al., 2000, J Neurosci 20 (21): 8005–8011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Manev, H., Costa, E., Wroblewski, J. T., Guidotti, A., 1990, FASEB J. 4: 2789–2797.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Manna, S. K., Aggarwal, B. B., 1998, J Immunol. 161: 2873–2880.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Marine, M. W., Dunn, A., Crail, D., et al., 1997, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 94: 8093–8098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Markova, E. D., lvanova-Smolcnskaya, I. A., et al., 1975, In Theoretical and Practical Basis of Treatment with Cerebrolysin. Abst 2nd Symp, Moscow (in Russian).Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Martin-Villalba, A., Hahne, M., Kleber, S., et al., 2001, Cell Death Differ. 8 (7): 659–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Mattioli, R., Husten, J. P., Spieler, R. E., 2000, Neural Plast. 7 (4): 291–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Mattson, M. P., Culmsee, C., Yu, Z. F., 2000, Cell Tissue Res. 301 (1): 173–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    McDaniel, R., 1985, Biochim Biophys Acta. 819 (2): 153–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    McGrow, C. P., 1977, Arch Neurol. 34: 334–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Miceli, G., 1977, Acta Psychiatr Scand. 55: 103–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Mihajlovic, R., Jovanovic, M., Djordjevic, D., Jovicic, A., 1996, Cerebrovasc Dis. 6: 13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Mirzoyan, S. A., Sekoyan, E. S., Sotsky, O. P., 1984, Bull Exp Biol Med. 97 (6): 681683 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Mizui, T., Kinouchi, H., Chan, P. H., 1992, Am J Physiol. 262 (2): 313–317.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Monaco, P., Pastore, L., Couone, S., et al., 1991, Early treatment of patients with ischaemic stroke: a double-blind study with monosialotetraesosigangliolode (GM1). First Int Conf on Strake. 7.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Myasoyedov, N. F., Skvortsova, V.I., Nasonov, E. L., et al., 1999, Korsakoff J Neurol Psychiatr. 5: 15–19 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Nakajima, Y., Mori, A., Maeda, T., Fujimiya, M., 1997, Brain Res. 765: 113–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Namura, S., Nagata, I., Takami, S., 2001, Stroke. 32 (8): 1906–1911.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Nanri, K., Montecot, C; Springhetti, V., et al., 1998, Stroke. 29: 1248–1253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Nozaki, K., Nishimura, M., Hashimoto, N., 2001, Mol Neurobiol 23 (1): 1–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Ogawa, A., Yoshimoto, T., Kikuchi, H., et al., 1999, Cerebrovasc Dis. 9: 112–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Oka moto, S., Li, Z., Ju, C., et al., 2002, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 99 (6): 3974–3979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Oktem, I. S., Menku, A., Akdemir, H., et al., 2000, Res Exp Med. 199 (4): 231–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Onal, M. Z., Fisher, M., 1996, Drugs Today. 32 (7): 573–592.Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Onal, M. Z., Fisher, M., 1997, Eur Neural. 38: 141–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Orgogozo, J. M., Dartigues, J. F., 1986. In Acute Brain Isehemia/Medieal and Surgieal Therapy (Battistini, N., ed.) Raven Press, New York, pp. 282–289.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Ortner, S., 1956, Prakt Atzt. 10: 360.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Pahan, K., Sheikh, F. G., Namboodiri, A. M., Singh, I., 1997, J Clin Invest. 100: 2671–2679.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Panetta, T., Marcheselli, V. L., Braquet, P., Bazan, N. G., 1989, Ann NY Aead Sci. 559: 340–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Parnham, M., Sies, H., 2000, Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 9 (3): 607–619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Panse, F., 1955, Med Klin. 50: 942.Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Parnham, M., Sies, H., 2000, Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 9 (3): 607–619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Partington, C. R., 1979, Mol Pharmacol. 15 (3): 424–491.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Peters, G. R., Hwang, L.-J., Museh, B., et al., 1996, Strake. 27: 195.Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Polak, J. M., Bloom, S. R., 1979, J Histoehem Cytoehem. 27 (10): 1398–1400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Polisch uk, N., 1997, Cerebrolysin in aeute head injury and acute stroke. In Ist Int Mondsee Med Meet, Unterach, Austria, 7.Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Ponomaryova-Stepnaya, M. A., Alfeyeva, L. Yu., Maximova, L. A., et al., 1981, ChemPharm J. 10: 37–42 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Ponomaryova-Stepnaya, M. A., Porunkevich, E. A., Skuinsh, A. A., et al., 1984, Bull Exp Biol Med. 51: 82 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Porciuncula, L. O., Rocha, J. B., Boeck, C. R., et al., 2001, Neurosei Lell. 299 (3): 217–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Potaman, V. N., Alfeeva, L. Y., Kamensky, A. A., et al., 1991, Bioehem Biophys Res Commun. 176 (2): 741–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Potaman, V. N., Antonova, L. V., Dubynin, V. A., et al., 1991, Neurosci Lell. 127: 133–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Prehn, J. H., Backhauss, C., Krieglstein, J., 1993, J Cerebr Blood Flow Metab. 13: 521–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Prehn, J. H. M., Bindokas, V. P., Marcuccilli, C. J., et al., 1994, Proc Natl Aead Sci USA. 91: 12599–12603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Rajdev, S., Hara, K., Kokubo, Y., et al., 2000, Ann Neurol. 47 (6): 782–791.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Rainer, M., 2000, Open-label study with Cerebrolysin-a neurotrophic agent for the treatment of dementia. In Proe 6th Int Stoehholm Springfield Symp on Advances in Alzheimer’s Disease, 4: 225.Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Rankin, J., 1957, Prognosis Scot Med J. 2: 200–215.Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    RANTTAS investigators, 1996, Strake. 27: 195.Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Rotondo, G., Meniero, G., Toffano, G., 1990, Aviat Space Enviton Med. 61 (2): 162–164.Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    Rudzinski, W., Krejza, J., 2002, Neurol Neurochir Pol. 36 (1): 143–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Ruether, E., Husmann, R., Kinzier, E., et al., 2001, Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 16 (5): 253–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Saleh, T. M., Cribb, A. E., Connell, B. J., 2001, Am J Physiol Regul lntegr Comp Physiol. 281 (5): 1531–1539.Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    Scand inav ian Stroke Study Group, 1985, Stroke. 16: 885–890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Schabitz, W. R., Schwab, S., Spranger, M., Hacke, W., 1997, J Cerebr Blood Flow Metab. 17 (5): 500–506.Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Schmid-Elsaesser, R., Zausinger, S., Hungerhuber, E., et al., 1999, Neurosurgery. 44 (1): 163–171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Schwab, M., Antonow-Schlorke, I., Zwiener, U., Bauer, R., 1998, J Neural Transm Suppl. 53: 299–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Seifert, W., 1981, Gangliosides in nerve cell eultures. In Gangliosides in Neurological and Neuromuscular Function, Development and Repair (Rap port, M. M., Gorio, A., eds.) Raven Press, New York, pp. 99–117.Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    Sen, S., Phyllis, J. W., 1993, Free Rad Res Commun. 19: 255–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Seren, M. C, Rubini, R., Lassaro, A., et al., 1990, Stroke. 21: 1607–1612.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Sharp, F. R., Massa, S. M., Swanson, R. A., 1999, Trends Neurosci. 22 (3): 97–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Silver, B., Weber, J., Fisher, M., 1995, Clin Neuropharmacol. 19: 101–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Sinitsyna, E. V., Limenovskaya, A. F., Klucharcva, T. E., et al., 1985, The inlluence of gangliosides on natural killers activity in Syrian hamster s. In Abst 5th All-Union Symp of Biochemists, Nauka, Moscow. 3: 132–133 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Skvortsova, V. I., 1993, Clinical and Neurophysiological Monitoring and Neuroprotective Therapy in Acute Ischemic Strake. Doctoral dissertaton, Moscow (in Russian).Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    Skvortsova, V.I., 1994, News Med Pharm. 4: 26–31 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    Skvortsova, V. I., 2000, Int J Med Practice. 4: 33–35 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    Skvortsova, V. I., Fidler, S. M., 1983, Clinical and electrophysiological study of Cerebrolysin effects on functional state of brain in acute ischemic stroke. In Vascular Diseases of Nervous System, Moscow, pp. 61–68 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Skvortsova, V. I, Guscv, E. I., Ashmarin, I. P., et al., 2000, Regulatory Peptides. 89: 81.Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Skvortsova, V. I., Nasonov, E. L., Zhuravlyova, E. Yu., et al., 1999, KorsakoffJ Neurol Psychiatr. 5: 27–32 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    Smit h, C. W., Rothlein, R., Highes, B. J., et al., 1988, J Clin Invest. 82: 1746–1756.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Sommer, H., 1975, In 2nd Sowjet-Osterrich Symp, 50.Google Scholar
  231. 231.
    Sommer, H., Harrcr, G., 1973, Folia Clin Int. 23: 4.Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    Sommer, H., Quandt, J., 1973, Schweiz Arch J Neurol Neurochir Psychiatr. 112: 373.Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    Sommer, H., Quandt, J., 1987, Neuropsychiatry. 1 (2): 89–93.Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    Song, B. W., Vinters, H. V., Wu, D., Pardridg, W. M., 2002, J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 301 (2): 605–610.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Spera, P. A., Ellison, J. A., Feuerstein, G. Z., Barone, F. C; 1998, Neurosci Lett. 251 (3): 189–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Spong, C. Y., Abebe, D., Auth, J., et al., 2000, Regulatory Peptides. 89 (1–3): 82.Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    Stadler, C., 1997, Current drug treatment of stroke. In Ist Int Mondsee Med Meet, Unterach, Austria, 3.Google Scholar
  238. 238.
    Staunton, D. E., Merluzzi, V. J., Rothlein, R., et al., 1989, Cell. 56: 849–853.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    STIPAS investigators, 1994, Strake. 25: 418–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Stolyarova, L. G., Kadykov, A. S., Kistenyov, B. A., et al., 1975, Cerebrolysin efficacy in treatment of patient s with residual signs of stroke. In Theoretical and Practical Basis of Treatment with Cerebrolysin. Abst 2nd Symp, Moscow, pp. 22–26 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  241. 241.
    Sugimori, H., Speiler, H., Finklestein, S. P., 2001, Neurosci Lett. 300 (1): 13–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Sugra, Y., et al., 1993, J Brain Nerve. 45 (4): 325–331.Google Scholar
  243. 243.
    Svennerholm, L., 1984, Biological significance of gangliosides. In Cellular and Pathological Aspects of Glycoconjugate Metabolism (Dreyfus, H., et al., eds.) INSERM, Paris, pp. 21–44.Google Scholar
  244. 244.
    Tai, T., 1983, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 80 (17): 5392–5396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Takasago, T., Peters, E. E., Graham, D. I., et al., 1997, Br J Pharmacol. 122: 1251–1256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Takeda, A., Onodera, H., Yamasaki, Y., et al., 1992, Brain Res. 569: 177–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    The Enlimomab Acute Stroke Trial Investigators, 2001, Neurology. 57 (8): 1428–1434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    The Tirilazad International Steering Committee Stroke, 2000. 31 (9): 2257–2265.Google Scholar
  249. 249.
    Toffano, G., 1984, Brain Res. 256 (2): 233–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Toffano, G., Savoini, G. E., Moroni, F., et al., 1983, Brain Res. 261: 163–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Toung, T. K., Hurn, P. D., Traystman, R. J., Sieber, F. E., 2000, Stroke. 31 (11): 2701–2706.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Toung, T. K., Traystman, R. J., Hurn, P. D., 1998, Stroke. 29: 1666–1670.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Tsunawasi, S., Sporn, M., Ding, A., Nathan, C., 1988, Nature. 334: 260–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Tumanova, S. Yu., 1985, Poly-functional role of gangliosides on cellular surface. In Abst 5th All-Union Symp of Biochemists, Nauka, Moscow. 1: 225 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  255. 255.
    Tumanova, S. Yu., Prokhorova, M. I., 1982, Neurochemistry. 1 (2): 184–199 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  256. 256.
    Twichell, T. E., 1951, Brain. 74: 443–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Urban, P. F., Harth, S., Frey, L., et al., 1980, Adv Exp Med Biol. 125: 149–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Urbanic S. R., Greenberg, J. H., Toffano, G., et al., 1989, Stroke. 20: 795–802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Van Der Worp, H. B., Kappelle, L. J., Algra, A., et al., 2002, Neurology. 58 (1): 133–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Vaughan, C. J., Delanty, N., 1999, Stroke. 30 (9): 1969–1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Vaughan, C. J., Delanty, N., Basson, C. T., 2001, CNS Drugs. 15 (8): 589–596.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Veh, R., Avrova, F., 1983, J Evolut Biochem Physiol. 19 (5): 507–510 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  263. 263.
    Vindish, M., 1991, Cerebrolysin-the last results in evaluation ofmulti-modal effect of the drug. In The 3rd Int Symp on Cerebrolysin, Moscow, pp. 81–86 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  264. 264.
    Volkov, A. V., Zarzhetsky, Yu. V., Postnov, A. Yu., et al., 1992, The results of regulatory peptides application in resuscitation after experimental cardiac arrest. In Terminal Stages and Post-resuscitation Pathology of the Organism: Pathophysiology, Clinical Manifestations, Prevention and Treatment, Institute of General Resuscitation, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, pp. 69–76 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  265. 265.
    Wahlgren, N. G., 1997, A review of earlier clinical studies on neuroprotective agents and current approaches. In Neuroprotective Agents and Cerebral Ischemia (Green, R., Cross, A. J., eds.) Academic Press, San Diego-London-Boston-New York-Sydney Tokyo-Toronto, pp. 337–363.Google Scholar
  266. 266.
    Waters, C., 1997, RBI Neurotransmissions. Newsletter for Neuroscientist. XIII (2): 2–7.Google Scholar
  267. 267.
    Wender, M., Mularek, J., Godlewski, A., et al., 1993, Neurol Neurochir Pol. 27: 31–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Windisch, M., 1994, Cerebrolysin. In EBEVE Pharmaceuticals, Austria, pp. 14–22.Google Scholar
  269. 269.
    Windisch, M., Piswanger, A., 1987, Neuropsychiatry. 1 (2): 83–88.Google Scholar
  270. 270.
    Wojcik, M., Ulas, J., Oderficld-Nowak, B., 1982, Neuroscience. 7: 495–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Wong, M.-L., Bongiorno, P. B., Rettori, V., 1997, Exp Med J. 163: 740–745.Google Scholar
  272. 272.
    Xue, D., Slivka, A., Buchan, A. M., 1992, Strake. 23: 894–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Yakovleva, E. V., Kuzenkov, V. S., Fedorov, V. N., et al., 1999, Bull Exp Biol Med. 128 (8): 172–174 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  274. 274.
    Yamaguchi, T., Sano, K., Takakura, K., et al., 1998, Stroke. 29: 12–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Yamasaki, Y., Matsuo, Y., Matsuura, N., et al., 1995, Stroke. 26: 318–323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Yamashita, K., Wiessner, C., Lindholm, D., et al., 1997, Metab Brain Dis. 12 (4): 271–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Yanamoto, H., Nagata, I., Sakata, M., et al., 2000, Brain Res. 859 (2): 240–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Yu, S. W., Wang, H., Poitras, M. F., et al., 2002, Science. 297 (5579): 259–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Yue, T. L., Gu, J. L., Lysko, P. G., et al., 1992, Brain Res. 574: 193–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Yun, H. Y., Dawson, V. L., Dawson, T. M., 1999, Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 45 (2–3): 113–115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Zavalishin, I. A., Niyazbckov, A. S., 1975, In Theoretical and Practical Basis of Treatment with Cerebrolysin. Abst 2nd Symp, Moscow (in Russian).Google Scholar
  282. 282.
    Zhang, R. L., Chopp, M., Jiang, N., et al., 1995, Stroke. 26: 1438–1442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Zhang, R. L., Chopp, M., Zaloga, c., et al., 1994, Neurology. 44: 1747–1751.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Zhang, Y., Pardridgc, W. M., 2001, Brain Res. 889: 49–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Zhu, Y., Yang, G. Y., Ahlemeyer, B., et al., 2002, J Neurosci. 22 (10): 3898–3909.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Zhuravlyova, E. Yu., 1998, The Role of Peptide-ergic Neurotransmitter Systems in the Pathogenesis and Neuroprotective Therapy of Acute Ischemic Stroke (Clinical and Biochemical Study). Candidate’s dissertation, Moscow, 191 (in Russian).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eugene Gusev
    • 1
  • Veronica I. Skvortsova
    • 1
  1. 1.Russian State Medical UniversityMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations