Paratransgenic Strategies for the Control of Chagas Disease
The use of insecticides in the elimination of Chagas disease vectors and therefore in the control of Chagas disease has limitations that have prompted the development of new control approaches. Paratransgenesis utilizes the genetic modification of symbiotic actinomycete bacteria found in the gut of triatomine bugs as a means to modify the gut environment of the bug, rendering it unfavorable to trypanosome development. Paratransgenic control, which has been developed for potential use in conjunction with insecticide programs, shows much promise: stable methods of transformation have been developed, antitrypanosomal genes have been tested, and a means of dispersal has been developed in the form the artificial feces, CRUZIGUARD, which mimics the natural coprophagic transfer of symbionts. Nevertheless, before a pilot field release, gene constructs will need to be optimized and questions concerning the health and environmental risks, as well as political issues, associated with the release of a genetically modified organism must be addressed.
KeywordsSymbiotic Bacterium Instar Nymph Recombinant Bacterium Shuttle Plasmid Antibiotic Resistance Marker
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Beard CB, Aksoy S. 1997. Genetic manipulation of insect symbionts, In: Molecular biology of insect disease vectors, a methods manual. Crampton JM, Beard CB, Louis C. (eds.) Chapman and Hall, London, pp 555–560.Google Scholar
- Beard CB, Durvasula RV, Richards FF. 2000. Bacterial symbiont transformation in Chagas disease vectors, In: Insect Transgenesis: Methods and Applications. Handler AM, James AA. (eds.), CRC Press, New York, pp 289–303.Google Scholar
- Dasch GA, Weiss E, Chang K. 1984. Endosymbionts of insects, In: Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Vol. 1., Krieg NR. (ed.) Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, pp. 811–833.Google Scholar
- Durvasula, R.V., Gumbs, A., Panackal, A., Kruglov, O., Taneja, J., Kang, A.S., Cordon-Rosales, C, Richards, F.F., Whitham, R.G., Beard, C.B. 1999a. Expression of a functional antibody fragment in the gut of Rhodnius prolixus via transgenic bacterial symbiont Rhodococcus rhodnii. Med Vet Entomol 13(2): 115–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Durvasula RV, Kroger A, Goodwin M, Panackal A, Kruglov O, Taneja J, Gumbs A, Richards FF, Beard CB, Cordon-Rosales C. 1999b. Strategy for introduction of foreign genes into field populations of Chagas disease vectors. Ann Entomol Soc Am. 92(6): 937–943.Google Scholar
- Higgs S, Lewis DL. 2000. Green fluorescent protein as a marker for transgenic insects, In: Insect Transgenesis: methods and applications. Handler AM, James AA. (eds.) CRC Press, New York, pp 93–108.Google Scholar
- Hoy MA. 2000. Deploying transgenic arthropods in pest management programs: risks and realities, In: Insect Transgenesis: Methods and Applications. Handler AM, James AA. (eds.) CRC Press, New York pp 335–367.Google Scholar
- Via LE, Dhandayuthapani S, Deretic D, Deretic V. 1998. Green fluorescent protein, a tool for gene expression and cell biology in mycobacteria. In: Mycobacteria Protocols. Parish T, Stoker NG (eds), Humana Press, Totowa, New Jersey, pp. 245–260.Google Scholar
- Young OP, Ingebritsen SP, Foudin AS. 2000. Regulation of transgenic arthropods and other invertebrates in the United States, In: Insect Transgenesis: Methods and Applications. Handler AM, James AA. (eds.) CRC Press, New York pp 369–379.Google Scholar