Biological Functions of Group X Secretory PLA2
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Secretory phospholipase A2s (sPLA2s) are a diverse family of low molecular mass enzymes that hydrolyze the sn-2 fatty acid ester bond of glycerophospholipids to produce free fatty acids and lysophospholipids. In addition to the classical types of group IB and IIA (sPLA2-IB and IIA), recent advances in molecular biology have led to the identification of novel types of sPLA2s, including group IID and IIE that we have cloned . Among the nine types of human sPLA2s, group X sPLA2 (sPLA2-X) has a structural similarity with the classical type of sPLA2-IB and IIA . We have shown that sPLA2-X has a potent hydrolyzing activity toward phosphatidylcholine (PC) and elicits more potent production of unsaturated fatty acids and lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC) in various inflammatory cells and colon cancer cells compared with sPLA2-IB and IIA [3,4]. The released arachidonic acid by sPLA2-X was efficiently converted to prostaglandins (PGs) by the action of endogenous cyclooxygenase (COX). The expression of sPLA2-X was detected in human lung epithelial cells and mouse splenic macrophages, and greatly augmented in human colon adenocarcinoma tissues in concert with enhanced expression of COX-2 . These findings suggest that sPLA2-X plays a critical role in the lipid mediator productions under various inflammatory states and in the COX-2- dependent PGE2 biosynthesis during colon tumorigenesis. Recently, we have shown that sPLA2-X is a high-affinity ligand for mouse PLA2 receptor (PLA2R) and identified a soluble PLA2R in mouse plasma . Using PLA2 receptor-deficient mice, we have shown that the membrane and soluble form of the receptor are involved in the endogenous inhibitory mechanisms against the strong PC-hydrolizing activity of sPLA2-X in mice .
KeywordsLipid Droplet Secretory Phospholipase Human Lung Epithelial Cell Macrophage Foam Cell Arterial Intima
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