ICSI, Male Pronuclear Remodeling and Cell Cycle Checkpoints

  • Laura Hewitson
  • Calvin R. Simerly
  • Gerald Schatten
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 518)

Abstract

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI; Palermo et al., 1992; Van Steirteghem et al., 1993) has heralded an era of enormous improvements in treating male infertility; it has resulted in the births of thousands of babies. In fact its success has led some clinicians to claim that male infertility is now “cured”, while others raise concerns over the global application of ICSI for all cases of in vitro fertilization (Tucker et al., 1995). These concerns may be, in part, based on the lack of supporting pre-clinical studies in relevant animal models (Ng et al., 1995; Yanagimachi et al, 1995). Others are worried about the possible long-term effects of ICSI on the offspring (Hamberger et al., 1998]; Moutel et al., 1999). While the current view of ICSI is one of cautious optimism, the development of a preclinical, non-human primate model has been established to address the safety of ICSI and other methods of assisted reproduction (Hewitson et al., 1998; Hewitson et al., 1999; Hewitson et al., 2001). Using advanced fluorescent imaging techniques, the cytoskeletal events that occur during rhesus fertilization have been examined after both in vitro fertilization (IVF) and ICSI. It was found that rhesus monkeys share many similarities with humans in terms of cytoskeletal and chromatin dynamics after fertilization by IVF (Simerly et al., 1995; Wu et al., 1996). However, rhesus oocytes fertilized by ICSI resulted in abnormal nuclear remodeling leading to asynchronous chromatin decondensation in the apical region of the sperm head, delaying the onset of DNA synthesis. The persistence of the acrosome and perinuclear theca on the apex of sperm introduced into the oocyte by ICSI may constrict the DNA in this region (Hewitson et al., 1999; Ramalho-Santos et al., 2000a). Despite these differentces, normal rhesus ICSI embryos have been produced and, after transfer to surrogate females, have resulted in several births (Hewitson et al., 1999; Hewitson et al., 2001)

Keywords

Migration Toxicity Candida Infertility Rhodamine 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura Hewitson
    • 1
  • Calvin R. Simerly
    • 1
  • Gerald Schatten
    • 1
  1. 1.Pittsburgh Development CenterMagee-Womens Research Institute University of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

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