Ultra-Wideband, Short-Pulse Electromagnetics 6 pp 123-130 | Cite as

# Pulse Centrovelocity: Asymptotic and FFT Results

Conference paper

## Abstract

Over the past 100 years a variety of definitions have been introduced in order to describe the velocity of an electromagnetic pulse as it travels through a dispersive material. Although these velocity measures provide comparable results in those frequency regions of the material dispersion where the loss is small, they disagree wherever the material loss is large. In fact, some definitions of the pulse velocity yield nonphysical results (superluminal or negative velocities), while others apply only to certain pulse characteristics. In 1970, Smith1 addressed these issues while proposing a new definition for the velocity of an electromagnetic pulse which he called the centrovelocity. This centrovelocity is defined by the quantity where In this paper, the centrovelocity of a rectangular-modulated plane-wave electromagnetic pulse traveling in the positive

$$
\left| {\nabla \left( {\int_{ - \infty }^\infty {tE^2 (r,t)dt} /\int_{ - \infty }^\infty {E^2 (r,t)dt} } \right)} \right|^{ - 1}
$$

**E(r**, t) is the real electric intensity vector. Notice that the ratio of the two integrals is analogous to a center of mass calculation since it tracks the temporal center of gravity of the intensity of the pulse. Recently, Peatross, Glasgow and Ware2 introduced a variant of Smith’s centrovelocity which tracks the temporal center of gravity of the*real*Poynting vector**S(r**, t) rather than that of the intensity of the pulse, where the Poynting vector is defined (in MKS units) as$$
S(r,t) = E(r,t) \times H(r,t).
$$

(1)

*z*-direction in a Lorentz model3 dielectric material is calculated in two independent ways: the first uses an asymptotic approximation and the second uses a numerical code based on the fast Fourier transform algorithm. The results show that, in the asymptotic limit as*z*→ ∞, the centrovelocity approaches the speed at which the Brillouin precursor travels through the causally dispersive material## Keywords

Carrier Frequency Propagation Distance Asymptotic Approximation Electromagnetic Pulse Dispersive Material
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