Religion and Law in Uzbekistan

Renaissance and Repression in an Authoritarian Context
  • Reuel R. Hanks
Part of the Critical Issues in Social Justice book series (CISJ)


After more than a decade of independence, Uzbekistan remains in a state of political and legal transition. While the trappings of a democratic government and legal system have been constructed, represented by the promulgation of a Constitution and numerous additional statutes that support basic ideals of Western democracy, the actual implementation and enforcement of many laws remains unrealized. This contradiction between “laws on the books” and “laws in action” is most apparent in regard to the concept of “religious freedom.” Indeed, religious freedom for Muslims in Uzbekistan today is as non-existent as was the case under the most repressive of the Soviet administrations, and certain similarities between past and present policy are striking.1


Religious Organization Religious Freedom Central Asian Region Islamic Movement Soviet Policy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Beckwith, G. (2000). Uzbekistan: Islam, communism and religious liberty—An appraisal of Uzbekistan’s 1998 law ’On Freedom of Conscience and Religious Organizations, Brigham Young University Law Review, 2000(3), 997–1048.Google Scholar
  2. Bjelajac, B. (2001). Uzbekistan special report: How strong is Islamic opposition? Keston New Service, Dec. 12. Available at archive.Google Scholar
  3. Blaustein, A. & Flanz, G. H. (1994). Constitutions of the countries of the world—Uzbekistan. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications.Google Scholar
  4. Braker, H. (1994). Soviet policy toward Islam. In E. Allworth (Ed.), Moslem countries reemerge (pp. 157–182). Chapel Hill, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Critchlow, J. (1989). Islam in the Fergana Valley: The Wahhabi threat, Report on the USSR, Dec. 8, 13–17.Google Scholar
  6. Delovoi Partner Uzbekistan (2001). Priem v residentsii Oksaroi, April 12, 1.Google Scholar
  7. Egorov, M. (2000). Vsem mirom! (By the whole world!), Narodnoe slovo, Feb. 16, 1–2.Google Scholar
  8. ERK (1992). July 17, 2.Google Scholar
  9. Fane, D. (1996). Ethnicity and regionalism in Uzbek-istan. In L. Drobizheva, R. Gottemoeller, C. M. Kelleher & L. Walker (Eds.), Ethnic conflict in the post-Soviet world (pp. 271–298). Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharp.Google Scholar
  10. Gleason, G. (1997). The central Asian states: Discovering independence. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  11. Haghayeghi, M. (1995). Islam and politics in central Asia. New York: St. Martins Press.Google Scholar
  12. Hanks, R. (1994). The Islamic factor in nationalism and nation-building in Uzbekistan: Causative agent or inhibitor? Nationalities Papers, 22(2), 309–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hanks, R. (2000). Emerging spatial patterns of the demographics, labor force and FDI in Uzbekistan. Central Asian Survey, 19(3–4), 351–366.Google Scholar
  14. Hanks, R. (2001). Repression as reform: Islam in Uzbekistan during the early Glasnost period. Religion, State and Society, 29(3), 227–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hanks, R. (2000). The ‘fundamentalist’ threat to Uzbekistan: Crisis or chimera? central Asia Caucasus Analyst. August 30: Available at Scholar
  16. International Crisis Group Asia Report (2001). Central Asia: Islamic mobilization and regional security. Report # 14. Brussels, March 1.Google Scholar
  17. Kangas, R. (1992). Recent developments with Uzbek political parties, Central Asia Monitor, 4, 22–27.Google Scholar
  18. Karimov, I. A. (1995a). Basic principles of social, political and economic development of Uzbekistan. Tashkent: Uzbekiston.Google Scholar
  19. Karimov, I. A. (1995b). Uzbekistan: Along the road of deepening economic reform. Tashkent: Uzbekiston.Google Scholar
  20. Keller, S. (1992). Islam in Soviet central Asia, 1917–1930: Soviet policy and the struggle for control. Central Asia Survey, 11, 25–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Khazanov, A. (1995). After the USSR: Ethnicity, nationalism, and politics in the Commonwealth of Independent States. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
  22. Krikun, N. (1991). Islam, Dialog, 8, 74–79.Google Scholar
  23. Lubin, N., Rubin, B. & Martin, K. (1999). Calming the Ferghana Valley: Development and dialogue in the heart of central Asia. New York: Century Foundation Press.Google Scholar
  24. Massell, G. (1974). The surrogate proletariat: Moslem women and revolutionary strategies in Soviet central Asia. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Melvin, N. (2000). Uzbekistan: Transition to authori-tarianism on the silk road. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  26. Nezavisimaya gazeta (1992). Uzbekistan, March 21, 3.Google Scholar
  27. Nezavisimaya gazeta (1992). Uzbekistan, Jan. 7, 3.Google Scholar
  28. Olcott, M. B. (1996). Central Asian’s new states. Washington D.C.: U.S. Institute of Peace Press.Google Scholar
  29. OSCE (2000). Human rights and democratization in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Washington, D.C.: Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe.Google Scholar
  30. Ozdalga, E. (1999). Naqshbandis in western and cen-tral Asia. Istanbul: Swedish Research Institute.Google Scholar
  31. Pravda vostoka (1991). ****, Feb. 26.Google Scholar
  32. Polat, A. & Butkevich, N. (2000). Unraveling the mystery of the Tashkent bombings: Theories and implications. Demokratizatsiya, 8(4), 541–553.Google Scholar
  33. Rashid, A. (2002). Jihad: The rise of militant Islam in central Asia. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Roy, O. (2000). The new central Asia. New York: New York, University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Rotar, I. (2001). Uzbekistan: Ramadan appeal for mosque reopening rejected. Keston News Service, Dec. 6. Available at archive.Google Scholar
  36. Rywkin, M. (1990). Moscow’s Muslim challenge, Rev. edition. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  37. Shakh, I. (1994). Sufizm. Moscow: Klishnikov, Komarov i K.Google Scholar
  38. Starr, S. F. (1996). Making Eurasia stable, Foreign Affairs, 75(1), 80–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tashkentskaia Pravda (1998). ****, Jan. 21.Google Scholar
  40. Turkistan Net: News and Information Network. (2001). The ugly face of Washington’s ally against terror, Oct. 31, pp. 1–2. Available at TURKISTAN-N@NIC.SURFNET.NLGoogle Scholar
  41. United States State Department (1998). Uzbekistan: Country reports on human Rights practices for 1998. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor.Google Scholar
  42. United States State Department (2002). Uzbekistan: Country Reports on human rights practices— 2001. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Democ-racy, Human Rights, and Labor. Available at http://www.state.gOv/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2001/eur/8366pt.htm Google Scholar
  43. Yakubov, O. (1999). Volch’ya staya: Krovavyi sled terrora. Moscow: Veche.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reuel R. Hanks

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations