• Anita S. Chong
  • Ian A. Boussy
  • Guerard W. Byrne


An organism consisting of two or more organs of different genetic composition is an ancient concept. Greek, Indian, and Chinese mythologies provide abundant examples of mythical composite creatures with fantastic properties: the Greek Chimera, with three heads (lion, goat, and snake) and a body comprising a lion in the front, a goat in the rear, and snake for a tail; the Indian Ganesh, with the head of an elephant and a body of a man; and the Chinese Phoenix, which is a bird with the neck of a snake, the back of a tortoise, and the tail of a fish. By those standards, the goals of modern xenotransplantation are far less fanciful.


Nuclear Transfer Fetal Fibroblast Hyperacute Rejection Xenograft Rejection Cobra Venom Factor 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anita S. Chong
    • 1
  • Ian A. Boussy
    • 2
  • Guerard W. Byrne
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryThe University of ChicagoChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiologyLoyola University of ChicagoChicagoUSA
  3. 3.Transplant CenterThe Mayo ClinicRochesterUSA

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