Endocrine Abnormalities in Boys with Hypospadias
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Hypospadias is one of the most common problems treated by the pediatric urologist, with an incidence of about 2 – 4 cases per 1,000 male births, or about 1 in 335 boys in modern series (Belman, 2002). Although the problem is common and the surgical management of hypospadias has made tremendous advances, with details provided elsewhere in this textbook, the etiology of most cases of hypospadias is often unclear. Since the development of the urethra is a hormone dependent event, logic suggests - and most authorities consider - that the development of hypospadias is in some way related to a relative deficiency of androgen action at the time of genital development. Given the recent advances in cellular and molecular biology, new theories of urethral development based on mesenchymalepithelial interaction — and related derangements that might lead to hypospadias - are also emerging (Baskin, 2000). Research into the etiology of hypospadias continues to shed light on the endocrine, genetic, environmental, and other miscellaneous factors that may contribute to the occurrence of this specific birth defect. The recent developments in this field are the topic of this review.
KeywordsAndrogen Receptor Androgen Receptor Expression Endocrine Abnormality Androgen Receptor Mutation Androgen Receptor Level
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