• Laurence S. Baskin
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 545)


Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital anomalies occurring in approximately 1:250 newborns or roughly 1 out of 125 live male births (Paulozzi et al., 1997). Hypospadias can be defined as an arrest in normal development of the urethral, foreskin and ventral aspect of the penis. This results in a wide range of abnormalities with the urethral opening being anywhere along the shaft of the penis, within the scrotum or even in the perineum (Figure 1).


Androgen Receptor Undescended Testis Androgen Receptor Gene Urethral Plate Penile Shaft 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laurence S. Baskin
    • 1
  1. 1.University of California, San FranciscoSan Francisco

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