Viral Hepatitis in Children

  • Deirdre Kelly
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 549)


Viral Hepatitis B and C are responsible for a significant burden of disease worldwide. Acute infection is rare in childhood but chronic asymptomatic infection carrying with it a significant risk of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma is of significant concern (Bellentani et al., 1999; Chu, 2000).


Chronic Hepatitis Fulminant Hepatitis Adefovir Dipivoxil Pegylated Interferon Human Iymphoblastoid Interferon 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Badizadegan, K., Jonas, M., and Ott, M.J. (1998). Histopathology of the liver in children with chronic hepatitis C viral infection. Hepatology 28, 1416–1423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bellentani, S., Pozzato, G., and Saccoccio, G. (1999). Clinical course and risk factors of hepatitis C virus related liver disease in the general population: Report from the Dionysos study. Gut 44, 874–880.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bortolotti, F., Jara, P., Barbera, C., Gregorio, G.V., Vegnente, A., Zancan, L. et al. (2000). Long term affect of alpha interferon in children with chronic hepatitis B. Gut 46, 715–718.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boxall, E., Sira, J., El Shukri, N., and Kelly, D.A. (2003). Persistence of hepatitis B antibody in children vaccinated in infancy in a low endemicity country. 11th International Symposium on Viral Hepatitis & Liver Disease, Sydney.Google Scholar
  5. Boxall, E., Sira, J., Standish, R.A., Sleight, E., Adeodu, O., Dhillon, A.P. et al. (2004). The natural history of hepatitis B in perinatally infected carriers. Arch. Dis. Child. In press.Google Scholar
  6. Bramley, J.C., Wallace, L.A., Ahmed, S., Duff, R., Carman, W.I., Cameron, S.O. et al. (2002). Universal hepatitis B vaccination of UK Adolescents: A feasibility and acceptability study. Commun. Dis. Public Health 5, 318–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Chang, M.H., Chen, C.J., and Lai, M.S. (1997). Universal hepatitis B vaccination in Taiwan and the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in children. N. Eng. J. Med. 336, 1855–1859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chang, M.H. (2002). Viral mutants and fulminant hepatitis. A dominant hepatitis B virus population defective in virus secretion because of several S-gene mutations from a patient with fulminant hepatitis. J. Pediat. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 34(4), 426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Choo, Q.L., Kuo, G., Weiner, A.J., Overby, L.R., Bradley, D.W., and Houghton, M. (1989). Isolation of a cDNA clone derived from a blood-borne non-A non-B viral hepatitis genome. Science 22A, 359–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chu, C.M. (2000). Natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in adults, emphasis on the occurrence of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatotol. 15 Supplement, E25-E30.Google Scholar
  11. European Paediatric Hepatitis C Virus Network. (2001). Effects of mode of delivery and infant feeding on the risk of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis C virus. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 108(4), 371–377.Google Scholar
  12. Honda, M., Kaneko, S., and Sakai, A. (1994). Degree of diversity of hepatitis C virus quasispecies and progression of liver disease. Hepatology 20, 1141–1151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jara, P. and Bortolotti, F. (1999). Interferon-α treatment of chronic hepatitis B in childhood: A consensus advice based on experience in European children. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 29, 163–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jonas, M., Kelly, D., and Mizerski, J. (2002). Clinical trial of Lamivudine in children with chronic hepatitis B. N. Eng. J. Med. 346, 1706–1713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kelly, D.A., Bunn, S., and Apelian, D. (2001). Safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of interfeon alfa 2B plus ribavirin in children with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 34, 342A.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Krogsgaard, K., Marcellin, P., and Trepo, C. (1996). Prednisolone withdrawal therapy enhances the effect of human lymphoblastoid interferon in chronic hepatitis B. INTERPRED Trial Group. J. Hepatol. 25, 803–813.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Marcellin, P., Chang, T.T., Lim, S.G., Tong, M.J., Sievert, W., Shiftman, M.L. et al. (2003). Adefovir Dipivoxil for the treatment of hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B. N. Engl. J. Med. 348(9), 808–816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Perillo, R., Schiff, E., Magill, A., and Murray, A. (1999). In vivo demonstration of sensitivity of YMDD variants to adefovir. Gastroenterology 116A, 1261.Google Scholar
  19. Poynard, T., McHutchison, J., and Manns, M. (2002). Impact of pegylated interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin on liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology 122(5), 1303–1313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Resti, M., Azzari, C., Mannelli, F., and Tuscany Study Group on hepatitis C infection in children. (1998). Mother to child transmission of hepatitis C virus: Prospective study of risk factors and timing of infection in children born to women seronegative for HIV-1. BMJ 317, 437–441.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Roberts, E.A., King, S.M., Fearon, M., and McGee, N. (1998). Hepatitis C in children after transfusion: Assessment by look-back studies. Acta Gastroenteml. Belgica. 61(2), 195–197.Google Scholar
  22. Ruiz-Extremera, A., Salmeron, J., and Torres, C. (2000). Follow-up of transmission of hepatitis C to babies of human immunodeficiency virus-negative women: the role of breast-feeding in transmission. Pediatr. Infect. Dis.J. 19(6), 511–516.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Schwarz, K.B. (2003). The safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of peginterferon alfa-2a (40KD) in children with chronic hepatitis C. Digestive Disease Conference, USA.Google Scholar
  24. Terrault, N.A. (2002). Treatment of recurrent hepatitis B infection in liver transplant recipients. Liver transpl. 8(10 Supplement 1), S74–S81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Thomas, S.L., Newell, M.L., Peckham, C.S., Ades, A.F., and Hall, A.J. (1998). A review of hepatitis C virus (HCV) vertical transmission: Risks of transmission to infants born to mothers with and without HCV viraemia or human immunodeficiency virus infection. International J. Epidemol. 27, 108–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Villamil, F.G. (2002). Hepatitis B: progress in the last 15 years, (Review). Liver transpl. 8(10 Supplement 1), S59–S66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Vogt, M., Lang, T., and Frosner, G. (1999). Prevalence and clinical outcome of hepatitis C infection in children who underwent cardiac surgery before the implementation of blood donor screening. N. Engl. J. Med. 341, 866–870.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deirdre Kelly

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations