KI67, P53, NM23, and DNA Cytometry IN Bladder Cancer: Potential Markers for Detection of Recurrence?

  • Gerhard Feil
  • F. Steffen Krause
  • Andreas Zumbraegel
  • Hans W. Wechsel
  • Karl-H. Bichler


In Germany, transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder is the eighth most common cancer.3 At present, pathological staging and grading are the most significant prognostic variables when planning treatment of TCC; however, the bladder tumor varies greatly in its biologic behavior. Up to 70% of superficial TCC (Ta/Tl) will eventually recur, while 10 to 15% will progress to muscle invasion (≥T2).4 About 50% of patients with muscle-invasive tumors subsequently develop metastases.39,41 Therefore, biological characteristics influence, to a variable extent, the incidence of recurrence, disease-free time, stage progression, and metastatic diffusion of TCC.


Bladder Cancer Bladder Tumor Transitional Cell Carcinoma Bladder Carcinoma Image Cytometry 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerhard Feil
    • 1
  • F. Steffen Krause
    • 1
  • Andreas Zumbraegel
    • 1
  • Hans W. Wechsel
    • 1
  • Karl-H. Bichler
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of UrologyEberhard-Karls-University of TübingenTübingenGermany

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