Minority Participation in Environmental and Energy Decision Making

  • James H. JohnsonJr.Email author


The most eloquent decisions are most often made when the decision-making process includes multiple perspectives. In the past, the lack of participation of minority and low income populations has lead to disproportionate impacts as a result of decisions affecting the environment and human health. In 1994, President Clinton signed Executive Order 12898 to require all federal agencies to develop a strategy to ensure fair treatment and meaningful participation of minority and low income populations. This chapter outlines the range of minority and low income stakeholders that should be considered in environmental and energy decision-­making processes, their unique roles, and some of the key issues that should be included when identifying the stakeholders.


Public Participation Environmental Justice Executive Order Execution Order Fair Treatment 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringConsortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Howard UniversityWashingtonUSA

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