Introduction: Stakeholders and Science

  • Joanna BurgerEmail author


It has become fashionable to include stakeholders in environmental ­decisions, yet this inclusion often takes the form of one-way communication that involves imparting information or assessing concerns and perceptions. While risk communication and perception analysis is important to the process, a consensus can be reached in many contentious situations by the wide inclusion of stakeholders in a process whereby they actually participate in problem formulation, data acquisition and analysis, and in the final decision making. This chapter provides an introduction to stakeholder involvement, defines stakeholders, provides a template for the different­ types of stakeholder involvement, and suggests approaches to improve stakeholder participation in environmental and energy-related issues. Stakeholder participation includes Community-based participatory research, another method or description of collaboration between researchers and communites.


Stakeholder Involvement Environmental Decision Stakeholder Participation Alaska Native Public Policy Maker 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



I particularly thank Michael Gochfeld, Charles W. Powers, David S. Kosson, and James Clarke for valuable discussions about science, stakeholders, and environmental health problems. I also thank Caron Chess, Michael Greenberg, and Lisa Bliss for helpful discussions about science over the years, Mary English for insightful comments on the nature of stakeholder involvement, and Sheila Shukla, Chris. Jeitner and Taryn Pittfield for technical support. This research was funded mainly by the Consortium for Stakeholder Participation (CRESP) through a grant from the Department of Energy (DE-FC01-06EW07053) to Vanderbilt University and Rutgers University, as well as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC 38-07-502M02), NIEHS (P30ES005022), and the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. The conclusions and interpretations reported herein are the sole responsibility of the author, and should not in any way be interpreted as representing the views of the funding agencies.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Life SciencesEnvironmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), and Rutgers UniversityPiscatawayUSA

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